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PubMed Journals Articles About "Apple Muss Freie Netz Verteidigen Technologieriese Apple Knickt" RSS

09:21 EDT 25th September 2017 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Apple muss freie Netz verteidigen Technologieriese Apple knickt" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 127

Molecular Tools for the Detection and the Identification of Hymenoptera Parasitoids in Tortricid Fruit Pests.

Biological control requires specific tools for the accurate detection and identification of natural enemies in order to estimate variations in their abundance and their impact according to changes in environmental conditions or agricultural practices. Here, we developed two molecular methods of detection based on PCR-RFLP with universal primers and on PCR with specific primers to identify commonly occurring larval parasitoids of the tortricid fruit pests and to estimate parasitism in the codling moth. Both ...


Malusides, novel glucosylceramides isolated from apple pomace (Malus domestica).

Three new glucosylceramides (GluCers) named malusides I-III (1-3) were isolated from apple (cultivars of Malus domestica) pomace (fruit material remaining after juice extraction). An unusual oxo/hydroxy group pattern within the sphingadienine (d18:2) type sphingoid base was observed. All compounds contained the same α-hydroxylated fatty acid (h16:0) and a β-D-glucose moiety. Their structures were assigned on the basis of one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic a...

Using RNA-seq data to select reference genes for normalizing gene expression in apple roots.

Gene expression in apple roots in response to various stress conditions is a less-explored research subject. Reliable reference genes for normalizing quantitative gene expression data have not been carefully investigated. In this study, the suitability of a set of 15 apple genes were evaluated for their potential use as reliable reference genes. These genes were selected based on their low variance of gene expression in apple root tissues from a recent RNA-seq data set, and a few previously reported apple r...


Iron-deficiency stress can induce MxNAS1 protein expression to facilitate iron redistribution in Malus xiaojinensis.

Iron (Fe) is a vital trace element in plants and deficiency of this element in apple trees can reduce fruit quality. Nicotianamine (NA) is known to play an important role in Fe transport and endogenous hormone balance. In the present study, we investigated the role of a nicotianamine synthase 1 gene (MxNas1) in an apple species, Malus xiaojinensis, that has an Fe-efficient genotype than other apple species and ecotypes. To characterize the response of M. xiaojinensis to Fe-deficiency, we used quantitative Q...

Electrochemical characterization of in situ functionalized gold organosulfur self-assembled monolayer with conducting polymer and carbon nanotubes for determination of rutin.

In this study, attempts were made to present a sensitive strategy for determining rutin. To reach the goal of the study, a poly(sulfosalicylic acid) film was electropolymerized on a gold electrode, which was modified by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole self-assembled monolayer and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PSSA/CNTs/MBT/Au). The proposed sensor was characterized by different techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spec...

Shopping for food with children: A strategy for directing their choices toward novel foods containing vegetables.

Involving children in the different steps of meal preparation has been suggested as a strategy for enhancing dietary habits in childhood. It has previously been shown that involving children in cooking can increase their willingness to taste novel foods and direct their food choices towards foods containing vegetables. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of involving children in food purchasing on food choices, intake, liking and appetite. A between-subject experiment was conducted w...

Perspective: The Paradox in Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products Research-The Source of the Serum and Urinary Advanced Glycation End Products Is the Intestines, Not the Food.

Inconsistent research results have impeded our understanding of the degree to which dietary advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) contribute to chronic disease. Early research suggested that Western-style fast foods, including grilled and broiled meats and French fries, contain high levels of proinflammatory advanced glycation end products (AGEs). However, recent studies with state-of-the-art ultraperformance LC-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) found that there is no evidence that these foods have eleva...

Bird use of organic apple orchards: Frugivory, pest control and implications for production.

As the largest terrestrial biomes, crop and pasturelands can have very large positive or negative impacts on biodiversity and human well-being. Understanding how animals use and impact agroecosystems is important for making informed decisions that achieve conservation and production outcomes. Yet, few studies examine the tradeoffs associated with wildlife in agricultural systems. We examined bird use of organic apple orchards as well as how birds influence fruit production positively through control of an e...

Integrative models for joint analysis of shoot growth and branching patterns.

Plants exhibit dependences between shoot growth and branching that generate highly structured patterns. The characterization of the patterning mechanism is still an open issue because of the developmental processes involved with both succession of events (e.g. internode elongation, axillary shoot initiation and elongation) and complex dependences among neighbouring positions along the parent shoot. Statistical models called semi-Markov switching partitioned conditional generalized linear models were built o...

Apple pectin-derived oligosaccharides produce carbon dioxide radical anion in Fenton reaction and prevent growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

Pectin is the main soluble fiber in apples or citruses. It may be fermented by gut microbiota to metabolites showing local intestinal and systemic effects. A wide range of beneficial effects of dietary pectin includes impacts on the redox milieu and microbiota profile. We prepared pectin-derived oligosaccharides (apple (APDO) and citrus) and polygalacturonic acid-derived oligosaccharides, using alkaline hydrolysis by hydrogen peroxide, and analyzed them by Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry. Furthermor...

A mitogen-activated protein kinase gene (VmPmk1) regulates virulence and cell wall degrading enzyme expression in Valsa mali.

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play critical roles in the regulation of different developmental processes and hydrolytic enzyme production in many fungal plant pathogens. In this study, an FUS3/KSS1-related MAPK gene, VmPmk1, was identified and characterized in Valsa mali, which causes a highly destructive canker disease on apple. VmPmk1 deletion mutant showed a significant reduction in growth rate in vitro, and could not produce pycnidium, indicating that the MAPK gene is important for growth an...

Effects of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (LEDs) on microbial and enzyme inactivation of apple juice.

In this study, the effects of Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) on the inactivation of E. coli K12 (ATCC 25253), an indicator organism of E. coli O157:H7, and polyphneoloxidase (PPO) in cloudy apple juice (CAJ) were investigated. The clear (AJ) and cloudy apple juice were exposed to UV rays for 40min by using a UV device composed of four UV-LEDs with peak emissions at 254 and 280nm and coupled emissions as follows: 254/365, 254/405, 280/365, 280/405 and 254/280/365/405nm. UV-LEDs at 254nm achieved...

Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. Chemotypes in Eastern Iberian Peninsula. Essential Oil Variation and Relation with Ecological Factors.

The genus Mentha (Labiatae) is a paleotemplate taxon including aromatic perennial herbs long cultived as flavouring, mint sauce and jelly, spearmint oil, antiparasitic and insecticide [1], [2], etc. Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. ("apple or woolly menthe", "mentastro" in vernacular name), is one of the five basic Eurosiberian and Mediterranean mentha species, common in grasslands on periodically flooded soils (Cl. Phragmitetea Tx. Et Presing, 1942), or moist soils with high phreatic level (Cl. Molinio Arrhenathere...

Apple and blackcurrant polyphenol-rich drinks decrease postprandial glucose, insulin and incretin response to a high-carbohydrate meal in healthy men and women.

Postprandial glycemic responses to meals are inhibited by polyphenol-rich plant foods. Combinations of polyphenols may be particularly effective through complementary mechanisms. A randomized, controlled, double-blinded cross-over trial was conducted in healthy volunteers to test the hypothesis that apple and blackcurrant polyphenol-rich drinks would reduce postprandial blood glucose concentrations. Secondary outcomes included insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secretion. Twenty ...

Patterns of low temperature induced accumulation of dehydrins in Rosaceae crops-Evidence for post-translational modification in apple.

Important crop plants of Rosaceae family are often damaged during winter due to the lack of acclimation and cold hardiness. One of the cellular responses of plants to cold stress is the accumulation of dehydrin proteins. We studied the expression of dehydrins in several Rosaceae species during low temperature treatment in vitro. Microshoots of Pyrus communis, Malus×domestica, Fragaria vesca, Fragaria×ananassa, Prunus cerasus and Prunus avium cultivars were grown in low temperature conditions. Genotype -sp...

Dietary Modifications in the Treatment of Laryngopharyngeal Reflux-Will "an Apple a Day" Keep the Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Away?

Functional identification of MdPIF1 as a Phytochrome Interacting Factor in Apple.

Light plays a central role in regulating both apple plant yield and fruit quality formation; however, the Phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs), which are the main components of Phytochrome-mediated light signal transduction in apple, have rarely been characterized. Here, we isolated and identified a PIF-like protein(MdPIF1) in apple, which is similar to AtPIF1. MdPIF1 was constitutively expressed at different levels in various apple tissues, and the transcription level of MdPIF1 was significantly induced ...

Multi-branched gold nanostars with fractal structure for SERS detection of the pesticide thiram.

The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of multi-branched gold nanostars with fractal structure has been investigated for trace detection of pesticide thiram. Raman spectrum results show that the gold nanostars substrate can produce about 10(2) fold stronger signal than the thiram alone with the thiram concentration increase of 10(3) times and 1.4 fold stronger signal than the gold nanostars without fractal feature. In the detection procedure, the most prominent SERS peak at 1376cm(-1) has bee...

Is biotechnology (more) acceptable when it enables a reduction in phytosanitary treatments? A European comparison of the acceptability of transgenesis and cisgenesis.

Reduced pesticide use is one of the reasons given by Europeans for accepting new genetic engineering techniques. According to the advocates of these techniques, consumers are likely to embrace the application of cisgenesis to apple trees. In order to verify the acceptability of these techniques, we estimate a Bayesian multilevel structural equation model, which takes into account the multidimensional nature of acceptability and individual, national, and European effects, using data from the Eurobarometer 20...

Comparative Programs for Arthropod, Disease and Weed Management in New York Organic Apples.

Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From 2014 to 2016, we tested different arthropod, disease and weed management programs in an advanced tall spindle high-density production system that included disease-resistant cultivars and rootstocks, in an organic research planting of app...

Dietary phlorizin enhances osteoblastogenic bone formation through enhancing β-catenin activity via GSK-3β inhibition in a model of senile osteoporosis.

Osteoporosis is one of the most prevalent forms of age-related bone diseases. Increased bone loss with advancing age has become a grave public health concern. This study examined whether phlorizin and phloretin, dihydrochalcones in apple peels, inhibited senile osteoporosis through enhancing osteoblastogenic bone formation in cell-based and aged mouse models. Submicromolar phloretin and phlorizin markedly stimulated osteoblast differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells with increased transcription of Runx2 and osteo...

Essential oils from Algerian species of Mentha as new bio-control agents against phytopathogen strains.

Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of Algerian Mentha species were studied. Chemical compositions of different Mentha species oils (Mentha rotundifolia, M. spicata, M. pulegium, and M. piperita) were investigated by capillary GC and GC/MS, and their antifungal activities were evaluated by means of paper disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays. In total, 98 components from all Mentha species were identified. All oils were rich in monoterpene-oxygena...

Two sampling strategies for an overview of pesticide contamination in an agriculture-extensive headwater stream.

Two headwaters located in southwest France were monitored for 3 and 2 years (Auvézère and Aixette watershed, respectively) with two sampling strategies: grab and passive sampling with polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS). These watersheds are rural and characterized by agricultural areas with similar breeding practices, except that the Auvézère watershed contains apple production for agricultural diversification and the downstream portion of the Aixette watershed is in a peri-urban area. ...

Browning in apples: Exploring the biochemical basis of an easily-observable phenotype.

Many fruits and vegetables undergo browning when they are cut and the tissue is exposed to the air. This is due to the activity of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1) with endogenous substrates. In this laboratory experiment, students prepare slices of different varieties of apples and assess the rate of browning. They make a simple extract of the apple tissue and measure the activity of PPO using 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (l-DOPA) as substrate. They determine the protein concentration of ...

Isolation and molecular cloning of hepatocyte growth factor from guinea pig (gHGF), and expression of truncated variant of gHGF with improved anti-fibrotic activity in Escherichia coli.

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is an attractive target for anti-fibrotic therapy because it attenuates excessive transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) which plays an important role in hepatic fibrosis. In the study, we reported on the isolation and molecular cloning of the open reading frame (ORF) of guinea pig HGF (gHGF), encoding a protein of 729 amino acids, with an apple-like (hairpin) domain, four kringle domains and a trypsin-like serine protease domain. Moreover, the truncated variant of gHGF (a d...


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