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In recent years, the private and public sectors have increased investments in medical diagnostics for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite these investments, numerous barriers prevent the adoption of existing diagnostics and discourage the development and introduction of new diagnostics in LMICs. In the late 1990s, the global vaccine community had similar challenges, as vaccine coverage rates stagnated and the introduction of new vaccines was viewed as a distraction to delivering existing vacci...
Point-of-care diagnostics that can determine an infection's antibiotic sensitivity increase the profitability of new antibiotics that enjoy patent protection, even when such diagnostics reduce the quantity of antibiotics sold. Advances in the science and technology underpinning rapid resistance diagnostics can therefore be expected to spur efforts to discover and develop new antibiotics, especially those with a narrow spectrum of activity that would otherwise fail to find a market.
This commentary highlights the article by Misyura et al that underscores the use of next-generation sequencing platforms for detection and verification of somatic variants.
The applicability of urinary biomarkers and optical diagnostics in upper urinary tract carcinoma (UUTUC) are increasingly debated. To receive insight in the opinion of the urological community involved in this field, a survey was sent out to identify the most promising techniques and understand the need for new diagnostics. Primary objective of this study was to provide an overview of current diagnostics in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. Secondary objectives of this study was to assess the need f...
Improving maternal health is a global priority, particularly in high HIV-endemic, resource-limited settings. Failure to use health care facilities due to poor access is one of the main causes of maternal deaths in South Africa. "Point-of-care" (POC) diagnostics are an innovative healthcare approach to improve healthcare access and health outcomes in remote and resource-limited settings. In this review, POC testing is defined as a diagnostic test that is carried out near patients and leads to rapid clinical ...
Point mutations in Ras oncogenes are routinely screened for diagnostics and treatment of tumors (especially in colorectal cancer). Here, we develop an optical approach based on direct SERS coupled with chemometrics for the study of the specific conformations that single-point mutations impose on a relatively large fragment of the K-Ras gene (141 nucleobases). Results obtained offer the unambiguous classification of different mutations providing a potentially useful insight for diagnostics and treatment of c...
Future advances in ophthalmology will see a paradigm shift in diagnostics from a focus on dysfunction and disease to better measures of psychophysical function and health. Practical methods to define genotypes will be increasingly important and non-invasive nanotechnologies are needed to detect molecular changes that predate histopathology.
Symptoms such as palpitations, fainting, dizziness and unexplained loss of consciousness are often notified by patients in clinical practice. Cardiological causes of these ailments could be various, inter alia, atriaventricular conduction disorders, supraventricular arrythmias or more life-threatening ventricular arrythmias. Diagnostics of these disorders includes a series of basic non-invasive research and more advanced specialistic methods. Presented case report shows problems of arrythmias diagnostics an...
The aim of this work is to summarize the current knowledge about preimplantation genetic screening and diagnostics.
Flow cytometric immunophenotyping represents an indispensable tool in hematological and immunological diagnostics. The most frequent indications include lymphocyte phenotyping and the diagnosis and monitoring of benign and malignant hematologic diseases. The role of immunophenotyping in clinical practice is evolving rapidly. This review provides an overview of its current applications and limitations.
Neurology has been continuously transforming by the refinement of molecular diagnostics and the development of disease-modifying treatments. The discovery of new antibody markers has elucidated the pathogenesis, provided the means of diagnostics, and offered cure or treatment for several immune-mediated neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. The identification of pathogenic and marker autoantibodies has also facilitated defining the associated phenotypic spectra and the overlap among the phenotypes li...
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus that recently emerged and has expanded worldwide, causing a global threat and raising international concerns. Current molecular diagnostics, e.g., real-time PCR and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), are time consuming, expensive, and can only be deployed in a laboratory instead of for field diagnostics.
Treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is empiric and based on population-wide susceptibilities. Increasing antimicrobial resistance underscores the potential importance of rapid diagnostics, including sequence-based tests, to guide therapy. However, the utility of sequence-based diagnostics depends on the prevalence and dynamics of the resistance mechanisms.
Confirmation of ocular infections can pose great challenges to the clinician. A fundamental limitation is the small amounts of specimen that can be obtained from the eye. Molecular diagnostics can circumvent this limitation and have been shown to be more sensitive than conventional culture. The purpose of this review is to describe new molecular methods and to discuss the applications of next-generation sequencing-based approaches in the diagnosis of ocular infections.
The accurate microbiological diagnosis of diarrhoea involves numerous laboratory tests and, often, the pathogen is not identified in time to guide clinical management. With next-generation sequencing (NGS) becoming cheaper, it has huge potential in routine diagnostics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of NGS-based diagnostics through direct sequencing of faecal samples. Fifty-eight clinical faecal samples were obtained from patients with diarrhoea as part of the routine diagnostics at Hvi...
Nearly half of the head and neck cancer cases are diagnosed in late stages. Traditional screening modalities have many disadvantages. The aim of the present article was to review the scientific literature about novel head and neck cancer diagnostics - epigenetic biomarkers.
The goal of the point-of-care (POC) sexually transmitted infection (STI) Diagnostics meeting was to review the state-of-the-art research and develop recommendations for the use of POC STI diagnostics. Experts from academia, government, nonprofit, and industry discussed POC diagnostics for STIs such as Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Treponema pallidum. Key objectives included a review of current and emerging technologies, clinical and public hea...
A critical requirement for controlling outbreaks of viral infection is sensitive and accurate diagnostics, which can be expensive and are frequently located in resource-intensive clinical laboratories. Outbreaks of many viral infections occur in countries where healthcare resources are limited and clinical laboratories scarce. This creates a fulfillment gap, one that could be filled through the development of inexpensive, sensitive, easy to use, and portable diagnostics. Here we describe our efforts to deve...
Early diagnosis is often the key to successful patient treatment and survival. The identification of various disease signaling biomarkers which reliably reflect normal and disease states in humans in biological fluids explain the burgeoning research field in developing new methodologies able to determine the target biomarkers in complex biological samples with the required sensitivity and selectivity and in a simple and rapid way. The unique advantages offered by electrochemical sensors together with the av...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a dominating class of small RNAs that regulate diverse cellular functions. Due the pivotal role of miRNAs in biological processes, a deregulated miRNA expression is likely involved in human cancers. MicroRNAs possess tumor suppressor capability, as well as display oncogenic characteristics. Interestingly, miRNAs exist in various biological fluids as circulating entities. Changes in the profile of circulating miRNAs are indicative of pathophysiological conditions in human cancer...
To establish a strategy for congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) screening and to establish confirmatory assays approved as In Vitro diagnostics (IVD) by the regulatory authorities, we evaluated the clinical risks and performance of diagnostic assays developed by commercial companies, since cCMV infection has significant clinical consequences.
The objective of the present study was to elaborate the program for differential diagnostics of acute pharyngeal diseases based on the 'ENT-Neuro' artificial neuronal network. The study group was formed by means of sampling patients with acute pharyngeal diseases from a set of case histories of the subjects presenting with acute inflammatory diseases. The data thus obtained were employed to develop the expert system to support the decision making process with the use of the 'ENT-Neuro' artificial neuronal n...
Component-resolved diagnostics (CRD) have garnered a lot of attention in recent years in the diagnosis of food allergies. We aimed to investigate sensitization against cow's milk and egg white components, and to study the clinical usefulness of serum food-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) to cow's milk and egg white components in Thai children with cow's milk and egg allergies.
Encephalitis is a serious neurological disorder, yet data on admission rates for all-cause childhood encephalitis in England are scarce. We aimed to estimate admission rates for childhood encephalitis in England over 33 years (1979-2011), to describe trends in admission rates, and to observe how these rates have varied with the introduction of vaccines and improved diagnostics.
This contribution covers recent original research papers in the biophotonics field. The content is organized into main techniques such as multiphoton microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography and photoacoustic tomography, and their applications in the context of fluid, cell, tissue and skin diagnostics. Special attention is paid to vascular and blood flow diagnostics, photothermal and photodynamic therapy, tissue therapy, cell characterization, and biosensors for bi...