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Showing "Developmental biology brainy background" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 13,000+

Developmental Biology: We Are All Walking Mutants.

What is Developmental Biology? Developmental Biology is a discipline that evolved from the collective fields of embryology, morphology, and anatomy, which firmly established that structure underpins function. In its simplest terms, Developmental Biology has come to describe how a single cell becomes a completely formed organism. However, this definition of Developmental Biology is too narrow. Developmental Biology describes the properties of individual cells; their organization into tissues, organs, and org...

Implications of Developmental Gene Regulatory Networks Inside and Outside Developmental Biology.

The insight that the genomic control of developmental process is encoded in the form of gene regulatory networks has profound impacts on many areas of modern bioscience. Most importantly, it affects developmental biology itself, as it means that a causal understanding of development requires knowledge of the architecture of regulatory network interactions. Furthermore, it follows that functional changes in developmental gene regulatory networks have to be considered as a primary mechanism for evolutionary p...

Applied Developmental Biology: Making Human Pancreatic Beta Cells for Diabetics.

Understanding the genes and signaling pathways that determine the differentiation and fate of a cell is a central goal of developmental biology. Using that information to gain mastery over the fates of cells presents new approaches to cell transplantation and drug discovery for human diseases including diabetes.

Defining "Development".

Is it possible, and in the first place is it even desirable, to define what "development" means and to determine the scope of the field called "developmental biology"? Though these questions appeared crucial for the founders of "developmental biology" in the 1950s, there seems to be no consensus today about the need to address them. Here, in a combined biological, philosophical, and historical approach, we ask whether it is possible and useful to define biological development, and, if such a definition is i...

Twenty Years in Maine: Integrating Insights from Developmental Biology into Translational Medicine in a Small State.

In this chapter, I give my personal reflections on more than 30 years of studying developmental biology in the mouse model, spending 20 of those years doing research in Maine, a small rural state. I also give my thoughts on my recent experience transitioning to a large medical center in Maine, and the issues involved with integrating insights from developmental biology and regenerative medicine into the fabric of translational and clinical patient care in such an environment.

The Comparative Organismal Approach in Evolutionary Developmental Biology: Insights from Ascidians and Cavefish.

Important contributions to evolutionary developmental biology have been made using the comparative organismal approach. As examples, I describe insights obtained from studies of Molgula ascidians and Astyanax cavefish.

Seeing is Believing, or How GFP Changed My Approach to Science.

The field of "Developmental Biology" has dramatically changed over the past three decades. While genetic analysis had been center stage in the 1980s and continues to be a corner stone for investigations, the introduction of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the 1990s has allowed us to look into living, developing embryos, and see how cells form tissues and how organ morphogenesis proceeds in real time. The introduction of protein binders into developmental studies some years ago has raised the precision ye...

Developmental Plasticity and Developmental Symbiosis: The Return of Eco-Devo.

Ecological developmental biology is the study of the interactions between developing organisms and their environments. Organisms have evolved to use the environment as a source of important cues that can alter the trajectory of their development. First, developmental plasticity enables the genome to generate a repertoire of possible phenotypes, and environmental cues are often used to select the phenotype that appears most adaptive at that time. This facilitates evolutionary strategies such as phenotypic ac...

Two Decades of Ascidian Developmental Biology: A Personal Research Story.

Ascidians are the closest relatives of vertebrates. Their utility in experimental embryology has been well recognized because of their simple mode of embryogenesis to form tadpole larvae with a basal chordate body plan. Approximately two decades of research, including decoding of the Ciona genome, have promoted ascidians as one of the best systems for exploring genome-wide mechanisms of developmental transcriptional control and chordate evolution.

Morphometrics, 3D Imaging, and Craniofacial Development.

Recent studies have shown how volumetric imaging and morphometrics can add significantly to our understanding of morphogenesis, the developmental basis for variation, and the etiology of structural birth defects. On the other hand, the complex questions and diverse imaging data in developmental biology present morphometrics with more complex challenges than applications in virtually any other field. Meeting these challenges is necessary in order to understand the mechanistic basis for variation in complex m...

Morpholinos: Antisense and Sensibility.

For over 15 years, antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) have allowed developmental biologists to make key discoveries regarding developmental mechanisms in numerous model organisms. Recently, serious concerns have been raised as to the specificity of MO effects, and it has been recommended to discontinue their usage, despite the long experience of the scientific community with the MO tool in thousands of studies. Reviewing the many advantages afforded by MOs, we conclude that adequately controlled MO...

Toward a Synthesis of Developmental Biology with Evolutionary Theory and Ecology.

The evolutionary conservation of developmental mechanisms is a truism in biology, but few attempts have been made to integrate development with evolutionary theory and ecology. To work toward such a synthesis, we summarize studies in the nematode model Pristionchus pacificus, focusing on the development of the dauer, a stress-resistant, alternative larval stage. Integrative approaches combining molecular and genetic principles of development with natural variation and ecological studies in wild populations ...

Developmental mechanisms underlying variation in craniofacial disease and evolution.

Craniofacial disease phenotypes exhibit significant variation in penetrance and severity. Although many genetic contributions to phenotypic variation have been identified, genotype-phenotype correlations remain imprecise. Recent work in evolutionary developmental biology has exposed intriguing developmental mechanisms that potentially explain incongruities in genotype-phenotype relationships. This review focuses on two observations from work in comparative and experimental animal model systems that highligh...

The Neural Crest Migrating into the Twenty-First Century.

From the initial discovery of the neural crest over 150 years ago to the seminal studies of Le Douarin and colleagues in the latter part of the twentieth century, understanding of the neural crest has moved from the descriptive to the experimental. Now, in the twenty-first century, neural crest research has migrated into the genomic age. Here, we reflect upon the major advances in neural crest biology and the open questions that will continue to make research on this incredible vertebrate cell type an impor...

A Path to Pattern.

The field of developmental biology is not the same one that I entered in 1975. At that time, it seemed that most of its practitioners used various kinds of microscopes to watch animals as they matured, described morphological details with impressive temporal and spatial resolution, and recorded responses to physical and genetic insults. The number of genes whose mutant phenotypes offered insights into developmental mechanisms was small, the expression and functionalities of these genes were unknown, and bec...

Developmental patterns of bilateral asymmetry in ancestral puebloans.

Producing and maintaining a bilaterally symmetric phenotype throughout the lifespan is energetically demanding. Over the course of an individual's life, various intrinsic and external stressors impact the growth trajectory. These perturbations can compromise the allocation of energetic resources to processes that maintain developmental precision, potentially resulting in bilateral asymmetry (BA). Because different stressors are present during the lifespan, BA is a valuable tool for examining the unique fact...

Making the Mouse Blastocyst: Past, Present, and Future.

The study of the preimplantation mouse embryo has progressed over the past 50 years from descriptive biology through experimental embryology to molecular biology and genetics. Along the way, the molecular pathways that lead to the establishment of the three cell lineages of the blastocyst have become more clearly understood but the fundamental questions of lineage commitment remain the same as those laid out in early studies. With new tools of genome manipulation, in vivo imaging and single-cell analysis, t...

The Unaimed Arrow Never Misses.

In this assay, Raphael Kopan argues that focused emphasis on disease and translation stifles innovation, and outline the reasons why, in my opinion, developmental biologists are more likely to produce new and important discoveries than their more "focused" colleagues.

Neuregulin/ErbB Signaling in Developmental Myelin Formation and Nerve Repair.

Myelin is essential for rapid and accurate conduction of electrical impulses by axons in the central and peripheral nervous system (PNS). Myelin is formed in the early postnatal period, and developmental myelination in the PNS depends on axonal signals provided by Nrg1/ErbB receptors. In addition, Nrg1 is required for effective nerve repair and remyelination in adulthood. We discuss here similarities and differences in Nrg1/ErbB functions in developmental myelination and remyelination after nerve injury.

Background to the Cape Town Manifesto: harnessing the power of the normal.

The future of Evo-Devo: the inaugural meeting of the Pan American Society for evolutionary developmental biology.

What is the future of evolutionary developmental biology? This question and more were discussed at the inaugural meeting for the Pan American Society for Evolutionary Developmental Biology, held August 5-9, 2015, in Berkeley, California, USA. More than 300 participants attended the first meeting of the new society, representing the current diversity of Evo-Devo. Speakers came from throughout the Americas, presenting work using an impressive range of study systems, techniques, and approaches. Current researc...

The Complexities and Unexpected Insights of Developmental Genetic Analysis.

The study of development involves many important techniques. Here I am trying to reflect on the strength of genetic analysis and its ability to uncover unexpected relationships and regulatory inputs from seemingly unrelated pathways.

Developmental Competence for Primordial Germ Cell Fate.

During mammalian embryonic development, the trophectoderm and primitive endoderm give rise to extraembryonic tissues, while the epiblast differentiates into all somatic lineages and the germline. Remarkably, only a few classes of signaling pathways induce the differentiation of these progenitor cells into diverse lineages. Accordingly, the functional outcome of a particular signal depends on the developmental competence of the target cells. Thus, developmental competence can be defined as the ability of a c...

Cycling in the Cell Fate Landscape.

The causal relationship between the cell cycle and cell fate has recently been reconsidered in several developmental systems, now including sex determination. Direct links between cell cycle machinery and developmental factors demonstrate how modulating the cell cycle can have a profound influence on cellular decisions, through phenomena largely divided into phase-specific interactions seen as "priming" and "competence," or global changes in transcription or histone modifications during transitions. This in...

Germ Line Mechanics-And Unfinished Business.

Primordial germ cells are usually made early in the development of an organism. These are the mother of all stem cells that are necessary for propagation of the species, yet use highly diverse mechanisms between organisms. How they are specified, and when and where they form, are central to developmental biology. Using diverse organisms to study this development is illuminating for understanding the mechanics these cells use in this essential function and for identifying the breadth of evolutionary changes ...

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