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Developmental Biology Brainy Background PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Developmental Biology Brainy Background articles that have been published worldwide.
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An updated, broader definition of developmental biology is needed to capture the full range of exciting research directions of the field, as current studies of adult homeostasis and physiology are extending developmental biology's "Golden Age."
For over half a century, the field of developmental biology has leveraged computation to explore mechanisms of developmental processes. More recently, computational approaches have been critical in the translation of high throughput data into knowledge of both developmental and stem cell biology. In the past several years, a new subdiscipline of computational stem cell biology has emerged that synthesizes the modeling of systems-level aspects of stem cells with high-throughput molecular data. In this review...
Every month the editors of Cell Chemical Biology bring you highlights of the most recent chemical biology literature. Our September 2016 selection includes the discovery of PZM21, a μOR biased agonist with minimal side effects, and the role of cholesterol in Hedgehog signaling pathway.
Schistosomiasis is a devastating parasitic disease caused by flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. The complex life cycles and developmental plasticity of these parasites have captured the attention of parsitologists for decades, yet little is known on the molecular level about the developmental underpinnings that have allowed these worms to thrive as obligate parasites. Here, we describe basic schistosome biology and highlight how understanding the functions of stem cells in these worms will transform our un...
Single-cell approaches are providing a new lexicon of developmental cell biology by revealing heterogeneities in seemingly uniform cellular populations. By bridging scales, single-cell approaches should, in principle, galvanize our understanding of how individual cells adopt distinct fates as they build complex tissues.
Dictyostelia represent a tractable system to resolve the evolution of cell-type specialization, with some taxa differentiating into spores only, and other taxa with additionally one or up to four somatic cell types. One of the latter forms, Dictyostelium discoideum, is a popular model system for cell biology and developmental biology with key signalling pathways controlling cell-specialization being resolved recently. For the most dominant pathways, evolutionary origins were retraced to a stress response in...
Tackling modern cell and developmental biology questions requires fast 3D imaging with sub-cellular resolution over extended periods of time. Fluorescence microscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to image biological samples with high spatial and temporal resolution with molecular specificity. In particular, the highly efficient illumination and detection scheme of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy is starting to revolutionize the way we can monitor cellular and developmental processes in vivo. Here we su...
Among John Saunders' many seminal contributions to developmental biology, his discovery of the limb 'zone of polarizing activity' (ZPA) is arguably one of the most memorable and ground-breaking. This discovery introduced the limb as a premier model for understanding developmental patterning and promoted the concept of patterning by a morphogen gradient. In the 50 years since the discovery of the ZPA, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) has been identified as the ZPA factor and the basic components of the signaling pathway...
One of the central goals in biology is to understand how and how much of the phenotype of an organism is encoded in its genome. Although many genes that are crucial for organismal processes have been identified, much less is known about the genetic bases underlying quantitative phenotypic differences in natural populations. We discuss the fundamental gap between the large body of knowledge generated over the past decades by experimental genetics in the laboratory and what is needed to understand the genotyp...
Our current understanding of the developmental biology of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and the genesis of ENS diseases is founded almost entirely on studies using model systems. Although genetic studies in the mouse have been at the forefront of this field over the last 20 years or so, historically it was the easy accessibility of the chick embryo for experimental manipulations that allowed the first descriptions of the neural crest origins of the ENS in the 1950s. More recently, studies in the chick an...
In this issue of Developmental Cell, Hattersley et al. (2016) use the unique biology of meiosis I, in which the cell can exit the division without reforming the nuclear envelope, to uncover an intriguing role of the nucleoporin MEL-28 in mediating chromosome segregation via its interaction with PP1 at the kinetochore.
Circadian clocks are important timekeepers of physiological processes. A new report shows that silencing the circadian clock specifically in steroid-producing cells of Drosophila disrupts development and causes lethality, and is more detrimental than having no clock at all.
A statistical background noise correction is developed for removing background noise contributions from measured source levels, producing a background noise-corrected source level. Like the standard background noise corrections of ISO 3741, ISO 3744, ISO 3745, and ISO 11201, the statistical background correction increases as the background level approaches the measured source level, decreasing the background noise-corrected source level. Unlike the standard corrections, the statistical background correction...
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR, intestinal aganglionosis) is a multigenic disorder with variable penetrance and severity that has a general population incidence of 1/5000 live births. Studies using animal models have contributed to our understanding of the developmental origins of HSCR and the genetic complexity of this disease. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding control of enteric nervous system (ENS) development through analyses in mouse models. An overview of signaling pathways that have...
Parent Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) is feasible developmental screening tools; however, it is not commonly used in Thailand. To examine the potential of PEDS as a screening mechanism, PEDS was implemented in well-child visits to find prevalence of developmental problems, characteristic of parental concerns and comments, and to compare with developmental evaluation by pediatricians using Parent Evaluation of Developmental Status: Developmental Milestones, assessment level (PED: DM-AL).
An outstanding challenge in biology is to elucidate the mechanisms that establish and limit organelle structure and size. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Sharma et al. (2016) report how a conserved centriole protein dynamically caps centriole microtubule plus ends to limit the organelle's length.
To determine factors associated with change in developmental progress in pre-schoolers referred to a developmental clinic.
How aberrant cells are removed from a tissue to prevent tumor formation is a key question in cancer biology. Reporting in this issue of Developmental Cell, Vaughen and Igaki (2016) show that a pathway with an important role in neural guidance also directs extrusion of tumor cells from epithelial tissues.
Theoretical modeling is central to elucidating underlying principles of emergent properties of complex systems. In cell and developmental biology, the last 15 years have witnessed a convergence of empirical and modeling approaches for fresh perspectives. The role of cell division in coordinating size, shape, and fate in particular illustrates the ever-growing impact of modeling.