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Showing "Developmental biology brainy background" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 12,000+

Developmental Biology: We Are All Walking Mutants.

What is Developmental Biology? Developmental Biology is a discipline that evolved from the collective fields of embryology, morphology, and anatomy, which firmly established that structure underpins function. In its simplest terms, Developmental Biology has come to describe how a single cell becomes a completely formed organism. However, this definition of Developmental Biology is too narrow. Developmental Biology describes the properties of individual cells; their organization into tissues, organs, and org...

The Maturation of Development.

An updated, broader definition of developmental biology is needed to capture the full range of exciting research directions of the field, as current studies of adult homeostasis and physiology are extending developmental biology's "Golden Age."

Implications of Developmental Gene Regulatory Networks Inside and Outside Developmental Biology.

The insight that the genomic control of developmental process is encoded in the form of gene regulatory networks has profound impacts on many areas of modern bioscience. Most importantly, it affects developmental biology itself, as it means that a causal understanding of development requires knowledge of the architecture of regulatory network interactions. Furthermore, it follows that functional changes in developmental gene regulatory networks have to be considered as a primary mechanism for evolutionary p...

Applied Developmental Biology: Making Human Pancreatic Beta Cells for Diabetics.

Understanding the genes and signaling pathways that determine the differentiation and fate of a cell is a central goal of developmental biology. Using that information to gain mastery over the fates of cells presents new approaches to cell transplantation and drug discovery for human diseases including diabetes.

Defining "Development".

Is it possible, and in the first place is it even desirable, to define what "development" means and to determine the scope of the field called "developmental biology"? Though these questions appeared crucial for the founders of "developmental biology" in the 1950s, there seems to be no consensus today about the need to address them. Here, in a combined biological, philosophical, and historical approach, we ask whether it is possible and useful to define biological development, and, if such a definition is i...

Twenty Years in Maine: Integrating Insights from Developmental Biology into Translational Medicine in a Small State.

In this chapter, I give my personal reflections on more than 30 years of studying developmental biology in the mouse model, spending 20 of those years doing research in Maine, a small rural state. I also give my thoughts on my recent experience transitioning to a large medical center in Maine, and the issues involved with integrating insights from developmental biology and regenerative medicine into the fabric of translational and clinical patient care in such an environment.

The Comparative Organismal Approach in Evolutionary Developmental Biology: Insights from Ascidians and Cavefish.

Important contributions to evolutionary developmental biology have been made using the comparative organismal approach. As examples, I describe insights obtained from studies of Molgula ascidians and Astyanax cavefish.

Seeing is Believing, or How GFP Changed My Approach to Science.

The field of "Developmental Biology" has dramatically changed over the past three decades. While genetic analysis had been center stage in the 1980s and continues to be a corner stone for investigations, the introduction of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the 1990s has allowed us to look into living, developing embryos, and see how cells form tissues and how organ morphogenesis proceeds in real time. The introduction of protein binders into developmental studies some years ago has raised the precision ye...

Computational Tools for Stem Cell Biology.

For over half a century, the field of developmental biology has leveraged computation to explore mechanisms of developmental processes. More recently, computational approaches have been critical in the translation of high throughput data into knowledge of both developmental and stem cell biology. In the past several years, a new subdiscipline of computational stem cell biology has emerged that synthesizes the modeling of systems-level aspects of stem cells with high-throughput molecular data. In this review...

Two Decades of Ascidian Developmental Biology: A Personal Research Story.

Ascidians are the closest relatives of vertebrates. Their utility in experimental embryology has been well recognized because of their simple mode of embryogenesis to form tadpole larvae with a basal chordate body plan. Approximately two decades of research, including decoding of the Ciona genome, have promoted ascidians as one of the best systems for exploring genome-wide mechanisms of developmental transcriptional control and chordate evolution.

Developmental Plasticity and Developmental Symbiosis: The Return of Eco-Devo.

Ecological developmental biology is the study of the interactions between developing organisms and their environments. Organisms have evolved to use the environment as a source of important cues that can alter the trajectory of their development. First, developmental plasticity enables the genome to generate a repertoire of possible phenotypes, and environmental cues are often used to select the phenotype that appears most adaptive at that time. This facilitates evolutionary strategies such as phenotypic ac...

The Neural Crest Migrating into the Twenty-First Century.

From the initial discovery of the neural crest over 150 years ago to the seminal studies of Le Douarin and colleagues in the latter part of the twentieth century, understanding of the neural crest has moved from the descriptive to the experimental. Now, in the twenty-first century, neural crest research has migrated into the genomic age. Here, we reflect upon the major advances in neural crest biology and the open questions that will continue to make research on this incredible vertebrate cell type an impor...

Biasing Opioid Receptors and Cholesterol as a Player in Developmental Biology.

Every month the editors of Cell Chemical Biology bring you highlights of the most recent chemical biology literature. Our September 2016 selection includes the discovery of PZM21, a μOR biased agonist with minimal side effects, and the role of cholesterol in Hedgehog signaling pathway.

A Path to Pattern.

The field of developmental biology is not the same one that I entered in 1975. At that time, it seemed that most of its practitioners used various kinds of microscopes to watch animals as they matured, described morphological details with impressive temporal and spatial resolution, and recorded responses to physical and genetic insults. The number of genes whose mutant phenotypes offered insights into developmental mechanisms was small, the expression and functionalities of these genes were unknown, and bec...

Making the Mouse Blastocyst: Past, Present, and Future.

The study of the preimplantation mouse embryo has progressed over the past 50 years from descriptive biology through experimental embryology to molecular biology and genetics. Along the way, the molecular pathways that lead to the establishment of the three cell lineages of the blastocyst have become more clearly understood but the fundamental questions of lineage commitment remain the same as those laid out in early studies. With new tools of genome manipulation, in vivo imaging and single-cell analysis, t...

Schistosomiasis as a disease of stem cells.

Schistosomiasis is a devastating parasitic disease caused by flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. The complex life cycles and developmental plasticity of these parasites have captured the attention of parsitologists for decades, yet little is known on the molecular level about the developmental underpinnings that have allowed these worms to thrive as obligate parasites. Here, we describe basic schistosome biology and highlight how understanding the functions of stem cells in these worms will transform our un...

Single-Cell Approaches: Pandora's Box of Developmental Mechanisms.

Single-cell approaches are providing a new lexicon of developmental cell biology by revealing heterogeneities in seemingly uniform cellular populations. By bridging scales, single-cell approaches should, in principle, galvanize our understanding of how individual cells adopt distinct fates as they build complex tissues.

Evolution of developmental signalling in Dictyostelid social amoebas.

Dictyostelia represent a tractable system to resolve the evolution of cell-type specialization, with some taxa differentiating into spores only, and other taxa with additionally one or up to four somatic cell types. One of the latter forms, Dictyostelium discoideum, is a popular model system for cell biology and developmental biology with key signalling pathways controlling cell-specialization being resolved recently. For the most dominant pathways, evolutionary origins were retraced to a stress response in...

The Unaimed Arrow Never Misses.

In this assay, Raphael Kopan argues that focused emphasis on disease and translation stifles innovation, and outline the reasons why, in my opinion, developmental biologists are more likely to produce new and important discoveries than their more "focused" colleagues.

Light-sheet imaging of mammalian development.

Tackling modern cell and developmental biology questions requires fast 3D imaging with sub-cellular resolution over extended periods of time. Fluorescence microscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to image biological samples with high spatial and temporal resolution with molecular specificity. In particular, the highly efficient illumination and detection scheme of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy is starting to revolutionize the way we can monitor cellular and developmental processes in vivo. Here we su...

Neuregulin/ErbB Signaling in Developmental Myelin Formation and Nerve Repair.

Myelin is essential for rapid and accurate conduction of electrical impulses by axons in the central and peripheral nervous system (PNS). Myelin is formed in the early postnatal period, and developmental myelination in the PNS depends on axonal signals provided by Nrg1/ErbB receptors. In addition, Nrg1 is required for effective nerve repair and remyelination in adulthood. We discuss here similarities and differences in Nrg1/ErbB functions in developmental myelination and remyelination after nerve injury.

Genotypes, Networks, Phenotypes: Moving Toward Plant Systems Genetics.

One of the central goals in biology is to understand how and how much of the phenotype of an organism is encoded in its genome. Although many genes that are crucial for organismal processes have been identified, much less is known about the genetic bases underlying quantitative phenotypic differences in natural populations. We discuss the fundamental gap between the large body of knowledge generated over the past decades by experimental genetics in the laboratory and what is needed to understand the genotyp...

Enteric Nervous System Development in Avian and Zebrafish Models.

Our current understanding of the developmental biology of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and the genesis of ENS diseases is founded almost entirely on studies using model systems. Although genetic studies in the mouse have been at the forefront of this field over the last 20 years or so, historically it was the easy accessibility of the chick embryo for experimental manipulations that allowed the first descriptions of the neural crest origins of the ENS in the 1950s. More recently, studies in the chick an...

The future of Evo-Devo: the inaugural meeting of the Pan American Society for evolutionary developmental biology.

What is the future of evolutionary developmental biology? This question and more were discussed at the inaugural meeting for the Pan American Society for Evolutionary Developmental Biology, held August 5-9, 2015, in Berkeley, California, USA. More than 300 participants attended the first meeting of the new society, representing the current diversity of Evo-Devo. Speakers came from throughout the Americas, presenting work using an impressive range of study systems, techniques, and approaches. Current researc...

Background to the Cape Town Manifesto: harnessing the power of the normal.

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