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PubMed Journals Articles About "Effect Of Probiotic On Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea" RSS

23:57 EDT 22nd September 2017 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Effect Probiotic Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 21,000+

DIFFERENTIAL EFFECT OF BILAYER THICKNESS ON STICHOLYSIN ACTIVITY.

In this study, we examined the influence of bilayer thickness on the activity of the actinoporin toxins sticholysin I and II (StnI and StnII) at 25 °C. Bilayer thickness was varied using di-monounsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) analogs (with 14:1, 16:1, 18:1, 20:1, and 22:1 acyl chains). In addition, N-14:0-sphingomyelin (SM) was always included because StnI and StnII are SM specific. Cholesterol was also incorporated as indicated. In cholesterol-free large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) the PC:SM molar rat...


CREIM: Coffee Ring Effect Imaging Model for Monitoring Protein Self-Assembly in Situ.

Protein self-assembly is fundamental to nanotechnology. Self-assembling structures are produced under static in vitro conditions typically forming over hours. In contrast, hydrodynamic intra-cellular environments employ far shorter timescales to compartmentalize highly concentrated protein solutions. Herein, we exploit the radial capillary flow within a drying sessile droplet (the coffee ring effect) to emulate dynamic native environments and monitor an archetypal protein assembly in situ using high-speed s...

Stereocomplex Crystallization of Star-Shaped Four-Armed Stereo Diblock Poly(lactide) From the Melt: Effects of Incorporated Linear One-Armed Poly(L-Lactide) or Poly(D-Lactide).

Star-shaped four-armed stereo diblock poly(lactide) (4-LD) and linear one-armed PLLA or PDLA (1-L or 1-D) having the molecular weight similar to that of 4-LD [higher molecular weight 1-L(H) or 1-D(H)] and that of one block of 4-LD [lower molecular weight 1-L(L) or 1-D(L)] were synthesized and the effects of incorporated 1-L or 1-D on the isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization of 4-LD blends from the melt were investigated. Solely stereocomplex crystallites were formed in unblended 4-LD and 4-LD blend...


Is testing a more effective learning strategy than note-taking?

The testing effect is both robust and generalizable. However, most of the underlying studies compare testing to a rather ineffective control condition: massed repeated reading. This article therefore compares testing with note-taking, which has been shown to be more effective than repeated reading. Experiment 1 is based on a 3 × 3 between-participants design with the factors learning condition (repeated reading vs. repeated testing vs. repeated note-taking) and final test delay (5 min vs. 1 week vs. 2 week...

"Sex differences in left-handedness: A meta-analysis of 144 studies": Correction to Papadatou-Pastou et al. (2008).

Reports an error in "Sex differences in left-handedness: A meta-analysis of 144 studies" by Marietta Papadatou-Pastou, Maryanne Martin, Marcus R. Munafò and Gregory V. Jones (Psychological Bulletin, 2008[Sep], Vol 134[5], 677-699). In the article the statistical evidence is weaker than reported for the moderating effect of writing hand compared to all the other instruments (reported finding: Q(1) = 8.36, p = .02; corrected finding: Q(1) = 3.17, p = .075). While the statistical evidence is thus somewhat wea...

Group Norms, Intergroup Resource Allocation, and Social Reasoning Among Children and Adolescents.

Cooperation is a fundamental drive of moral behavior from infancy, yet competitive intergroup contexts can exert a significant influence on resource allocation behavior in childhood. The present study explored how ingroup and outgroup norms of competition and cooperation influenced the allocation of resources between groups among children and adolescents, along with how they reasoned about these allocations. Ingroup norms combined, for the first time, with outgroup norms were manipulated to examine their ef...

Sleep Problems in Preschoolers and Maternal Depressive Symptoms: An Evaluation of Mother- and Child-Driven Effects.

Child sleep problems are associated with maternal depressive symptoms. It is unclear to what extent the association is due to direct effects or common risk factors for mother and child. Direct effects could represent child-driven processes, where child sleep problems influence maternal depressive symptoms, or mother-driven processes, where maternal depressive symptoms influence child sleep problems. Common factors could be shared genetic and familial environmental risk. Child- and mother-driven processes ar...

Category Structure Determines the Relative Attractiveness of Global Versus Local Averages.

Stimuli that capture the central tendency of presented exemplars are often preferred-a phenomenon also known as the classic beauty-in-averageness effect. However, recent studies have shown that this effect can reverse under certain conditions. We propose that a key variable for such ugliness-in-averageness effects is the category structure of the presented exemplars. When exemplars cluster into multiple subcategories, the global average should no longer reflect the underlying stimulus distributions, and wil...

Individual Variability in the Semantic Processing of English Compound Words.

Semantic transparency effects during compound word recognition provide critical insight into the organization of semantic knowledge and the nature of semantic processing. The past 25 years of psycholinguistic research on compound semantic transparency has produced discrepant effects, leaving the existence and nature of its influence unresolved. In the present study, we examined the influence of semantic transparency and individual reading experience on eye-movement behavior during sentence reading. Eye-move...

The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Item and Associative Recognition Memory.

Sleep deprivation adversely affects the ability to perform cognitive tasks, but theories range from predicting an overall decline in cognitive functioning because of reduced stability in attentional networks to specific deficits in various cognitive domains or processes. We measured the effects of sleep deprivation on two memory tasks, item recognition ("was this word in the list studied") and associative recognition ("were these two words studied in the same pair"). These tasks test memory for information ...

Embodied Cognition: Is Activation of the Motor Cortex Essential for Understanding Action Verbs?

In 8 experiments using language processing tasks ranging from lexical decision to sensibility judgment, participants made hand or foot responses after reading hand- or foot-associated words such as action verbs. In general, response time (RT) tended to be faster when the hand- versus foot-associated word was compatible with the limb that was required to respond (e.g., hand response to a hand-associated word) than when it was incompatible (e.g., foot response to a hand-associated word). To see whether this c...

Exploring the Self-Ownership Effect: Separating Stimulus and Response Biases.

Although ownership is acknowledged to exert a potent influence on various aspects of information processing, the origin of these effects remains largely unknown. Based on the demonstration that self-relevance facilitates perceptual judgments (i.e., the self-prioritization effect), here we explored the possibility that ownership enhances object categorization. The results of 2 experiments supported this prediction. Compared with items owned by a stranger (Expt. 1) or best friend (Expt. 2), those owned by the...

Construction and Updating of Event Models in Auditory Event Processing.

Humans segment the continuous stream of sensory information into distinct events at points of change. Between 2 events, humans perceive an event boundary. Present theories propose changes in the sensory information to trigger updating processes of the present event model. Increased encoding effort finally leads to a memory benefit at event boundaries. Evidence from reading time studies (increased reading times with increasing amount of change) suggest that updating of event models is incremental. We present...

Motivation to Avoid Loss Improves Implicit Skill Performance.

Implicit learning reflects learning from experience that occurs without intention or awareness of the information acquired and is hypothesized to contribute to skill acquisition by improving performance with practice. The role of motivation has not been examined because this kind of memory is represented outside awareness. We manipulated motivation (approach/avoidance) and type of feedback (positive/negative) to measure how these affected a well-studied task of implicit sequence learning. Across 2 experimen...

Individual Differences in Verbal Working Memory Underlie a Tradeoff Between Semantic and Structural Processing Difficulty During Language Comprehension: An ERP Investigation.

This study investigated the processes reflected in the widely observed N400 and P600 event-related potential (ERP) effects and tested the hypothesis that the N400 and P600 effects are functionally linked in a tradeoff relationship, constrained in part by individual differences in cognitive ability. Sixty participants read sentences, and ERP effects of semantic anomaly, relative to plausible words, were calculated for each participant. Results suggested qualitatively different ERP patterns across participant...

The Forward Testing Effect: Interim Testing Enhances Inductive Learning.

Induction refers to the process in which people generalize their previous experience when making uncertain inferences about the environment that go beyond direct experience. Here we show that interim tests strongly enhance inductive learning. Participants studied the painting styles of eight famous artists across four lists, each comprising paintings by one pair of artists. In an interim test group participants' induction was tested after each list. In two control groups participants solved math problems (i...

Sequential Whole Report Accesses Different States in Visual Working Memory.

Working memory (WM) enables a rapid access to a limited number of items that are no longer physically present. WM studies usually involve the encoding and retention of multiple items, while probing a single item only. Hence, little is known about how well multiple items can be reported from WM. Here we asked participants to successively report each of up to 8 encoded Gabor patches from WM. Recall order was externally cued, and stimulus orientations had to be reproduced on a continuous dimension. Participant...

Grasp Representations Depend on Knowledge and Attention.

Seeing pictures of objects activates the motor cortex and can have an influence on subsequent grasping actions. However, the exact nature of the motor representations evoked by these pictures is unclear. For example, action plans engaged by pictures could be most affected by direct visual input and computed online based on object shape. Alternatively, action plans could be influenced by experience seeing and grasping these objects. We provide evidence for a dual-route theory of action representations evoked...

Generating Lies Produces Lower Memory Predictions and Higher Memory Performance Than Telling the Truth: Evidence for a Metacognitive Illusion.

Manipulations that induce disfluency during encoding generally produce lower memory predictions for the disfluent condition than for the fluent condition. Similar to other manipulations of disfluency, generating lies takes longer and requires more mental effort than does telling the truth; hence, a manipulation of lie generation might produce patterns similar to other types of fluency for memory predictions. The current study systematically investigates the effect of a lie-generation manipulation on both ac...

A Cross-Level Investigation of Informal Field-Based Learning and Performance Improvements.

Organizations often operate in complex and dynamic environments which place a premium on employees' ongoing learning and acquisition of new competencies. Additionally, the majority of learning in organizations does not take place in formal training settings, but we know relatively little about how informal field-based learning (IFBL) behaviors relate to changes in job performance. In this study, we first clarified the construct of IFBL as a subset of informal learning. Second, on the basis of this clarified...

Ranking Low, Feeling High: How Hierarchical Position and Experienced Power Promote Prosocial Behavior in Response to Procedural Justice.

Research shows that power can lead to prosocial behavior by facilitating the behavioral expression of dispositional prosocial motivation. However, it is not clear how power may facilitate responses to contextual factors that promote prosocial motivation. Integrating fairness heuristic theory and the situated focus theory of power, we argue that in particular, organization members in lower (vs. higher) hierarchical positions who simultaneously experience a high (vs. low) sense of power respond with prosocial...

The Upright Body Position Increases Translaminar Pressure Gradient in Normotensive and Hypertensive Rats.

Several lines of evidence suggest that the pathogenesis of glaucoma may depend on an increased translaminar pressure gradient (TPG), the difference between intraocular and intracranial pressure (ICP), rather than on intraocular pressure (IOP) itself. It has also been suggested that high blood pressure might correlate with the incidence of glaucoma; however, the data are contradictory. Here, we studied the effect of arterial blood pressure and changes in body position on TPG in rats.

Transplantation of Human Corneal Endothelial Cells Cultured on Bio-Engineered Collagen Vitrigel in a Rabbit Model of Corneal Endothelial Dysfunction.

To evaluate the effect of transplanting bioengineered corneal endothelial grafts in a rabbit model of corneal endothelial failure.

What makes a dog adoptable? An eye-tracking investigation.

Humans readily attribute personality and behavioral traits to dogs, and these attributions influence decisions about adoption. This study focused on how these attributions could be influenced by breed and pose by using pictures of four breeds (Doberman Pinscher, Golden Retriever, pit bull, and Rottweiler) in 4 poses (dog sitting alone, sitting with a human, standing alone, and walking on a leash with a human). Participants rated each picture on friendliness, aggressiveness, and adoptability. Eye-tracking te...

The Glycosidase Treatment of Gentianae Scabrae Radix Converts Trifloroside into Deglucosyltrifloroside with an Enhancement of Antioxidative Effects.

Herbal medicines were subjected to enzyme reaction by using a commercial glycosidase AMG-300L, and were evaluated for enhancement of their antioxidative activities. The methanolic extract of Gentianae Scabrae Radix (GSR) showed the most dramatic changes after enzyme reaction, as seen in the high-performance liquid chromatography profiles and an increase in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect. Trifloroside (1, TF) was identified as being significantly decreased by enzyme reacti...


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