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PubMed Journals Articles About "Facts Photos 72nd Anniversary Nagasaki Atomic Bombing" RSS

11:56 EDT 24th September 2017 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Facts Photos 72nd Anniversary Nagasaki Atomic Bombing" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 1,500+

Tip Pressure on Semicircular Specimens in Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy in Viscous Fluid Environments.

Tapping mode (TM) atomic force microscopy (AFM) in a liquid environment is widely used to measure the contours of biological specimens. The TM triggers the AFM probe approximately at the resonant frequencies and controls the tip such that it periodically touches the specimen along the scanning path. The AFM probe and its tip produce a hydrodynamic pressure on the probe itself and press the specimen. The tip to specimen size ratio is known to affect the measurement accuracy of AFM, however, few studies have ...


Complete protein-protein association kinetics in atomic detail revealed by molecular dynamics simulations and Markov modelling.

Protein-protein association is fundamental to many life processes. However, a microscopic model describing the structures and kinetics during association and dissociation is lacking on account of the long lifetimes of associated states, which have prevented efficient sampling by direct molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Here we demonstrate protein-protein association and dissociation in atomistic resolution for the ribonuclease barnase and its inhibitor barstar by combining adaptive high-throughput MD sim...

Hollow Pd-Ag Composite Nanowires for Fast Responding and Transparent Hydrogen Sensors.

Pd based alloy materials with hollow nanostructures are ideal hydrogen (H2) sensor building blocks because of the ultra-high surface area afforded by this architecture. In this work, for the first time, we report a simple fabrication process for preparing hollow Pd-Ag alloy nanowires (Pd@Ag HNWs) by using the electrodeposition of lithographically patterned silver nanowires and followed galvanic replacement reaction (GRR) to form palladium. By controlling the GRR time of aligned Ag NWs within an aqueous Pd2+...


Ab initio study of the atomic level structure of the rutile TiO2 (110) - titanium nitride (TiN) interface.

Titanium nitride (TiN) is widely used in industry as a protective coating due to its hardness and resistance to corrosion and can spontaneously form a thin oxide layer when it is exposed to air, which could modify the properties of the coating. With limited understanding of the TiO2 - TiN interfacial system at present, this work aims to describe the structural and electronic properties of oxidized TiN based on a density functional theory (DFT) study of the rutile TiO2 (110) - TiN (100) interface model syste...

Detection of selected trace elements in yogurt components.

The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of Cu, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, and Hg in the white and fruit parts of commercially available yogurts (n = 30) from Nitra markets (Slovak Republic). The results were correlated to determine their relationships. Three yogurt fruit flavors were chosen and tested, strawberry (n = 10), blueberry (n = 10), and cherry (n = 10). The elements were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Higher concentrations of toxic elements, such as Cd...

Modeling of annexin A2-Membrane interactions by molecular dynamics simulations.

The annexins are a family of Ca2+-regulated phospholipid binding proteins that are involved in membrane domain organization and membrane trafficking. Although they are widely studied and crystal structures are available for several soluble annexins their mode of membrane association has never been studied at the molecular level. Here we obtained molecular information on the annexin-membrane interaction that could serve as paradigm for the peripheral membrane association of cytosolic proteins by Molecular Dy...

Determination of lead at trace levels in mussel and sea water samples using vortex assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction-slotted quartz tube-flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

In this study, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and slotted quartz tube (SQT) were coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) to increase the sensitivity of lead. Conditions such as the formation of the lead-dithizone complex, efficiency of the DLLME method and the output of the SQT were systematically optimized to improve the detection limit for the analyte. The conventional FAAS system was improved upon by about 3.0 times with SQT-FAAS, 32 times with DLLME-FAAS and 142 times wi...

Chemical Vapor Deposition of Thin, Conductive and Fouling-Resistant Polymeric Films.

Fouling has been a persistent issue within applications ranging from membrane separation to biomedical implantation. Research to date focuses on fouling resistant coatings, where electrical conductivity is unnecessary. In this study, we report the synthesis of multifunctional thin films with both fouling-resistance and electrical conductivity for their potential applications in electrolysis based self-cleaning of separation membranes and in the field of bioelectronics. This unique combination of properties ...

Phase imaging and nanoscale energy dissipation of supported graphene using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy.

We investigate phase imaging of supported graphene using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (AFM), so called, tapping mode. The phase contrast between graphene and neighbouring substrate grows at hard tapping conditions and the contrast is enhanced compared to the topographic one. Therefore, the phase measurements could enable a high contrast imaging of graphene and related two dimensional materials and heterostructures, not achievable with conventional AFM based topographic measurements. Obtained...

Effects of Precipitant and pH on Coprecipitation of Nanosized Co-Cr-V Alloy Powders.

Nanosized Co-Cr-V alloy powders were synthesized via coprecipitation method. Effects of precipitants ((NH₄)₂C₂O₄·H₂O and Na₂CO₃) and pH were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Zeta potential analyzer, thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Co-Cr-V alloy powders were consisted of major face-centered cubic Co (fcc Co) and minor hexagonal close-packed Co (hcp Co)....

Spontaneous non-canonical assembly of CcmK hexameric components from β-carboxysome shells of cyanobacteria.

CcmK proteins are major constituents of icosahedral shells of β-carboxysomes, a bacterial microcompartment that plays a key role for CO2 fixation in nature. Supported by the characterization of bidimensional (2D) layers of packed CcmK hexamers in crystal and electron microscopy structures, CcmK are assumed to be the major components of icosahedral flat facets. Here, we reassessed the validity of this model by studying CcmK isoforms from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Native mass spectrometry studies confirmed ...

Picometer-scale atom position analysis in annular bright-field STEM imaging.

We study the effects of specimen mistilt on the picometer-scale measurement of local structure by combing experiment and simulation in annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ABF-STEM). A relative distance measurement method is proposed to separate the tilt effects from the scan noise and sample drift induced image distortion. We find that under a typical experimental condition a small specimen tilt (∼6 mrad) in 25 nm thick SrTiO3 along [001] causes 11.9 pm artificial displaceme...

Using a fluorescence quenching method to detect DNA adsorption onto single-walled carbon nanotube surfaces.

Surface modification of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with DNA molecules has attracted much attention in recent years to increase SWNT solubility and make various SWNT-based nanobiodevices. Therefore, there is a critical need to quantify the interaction between DNA molecules and SWNT surfaces, particularly the intermediate structures during DNA adsorption. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to detect the adsorption of DNA oligomers on SWNT surfaces by fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescein-l...

Hydrothermal synthesis of 4ZnO·B2O3·H2O:Ln(3+) (Ln=Eu, Tb) phosphors: Morphology-tunable and luminescence properties.

4ZnO·B2O3·H2O:Ln(3+) (Ln=Eu, Tb) phosphors with different morphologies have been successfully synthesized via one-step hydrothermal method through regulating the molar amount of Eu(3+) and Tb(3+). Comprehensive scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) characterizations all confirm that obtained products are 4ZnO·B2O3·H2O:Ln(3+) (Ln=Eu, Tb). The experimental results display...

Association between Body Composition and Motor Performance in Preschool Children.

Being overweight makes physical movement more difficult. Our aim was to investigate the association between body composition and motor performance in preschool children.

Mapping the interaction sites of Mucin 1 and DNA aptamer by atomic force microscopy.

Mucin 1 (MUC1) is an attractive tumor marker for cancer diagnosis. An advanced atomic force microscopy (AFM) mode, peak-force tapping AFM with an aptamer functionalized tip, was introduced to map the specific interaction sites of an aptamer and MUC1. Single molecular force spectroscopy (SMFS) was used to investigate dynamic parameters of the aptamer-MUC1.

Electronic excitation induced hydrogen-bond adjustment and lattice control in organic-inorganic hybrid cubic perovskites: a fixed occupation molecular dynamics study.

The organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite has become a new type of semiconductor for low cost and highly efficient solar cells. However, the mechanism of interactions between the organic cation and the inorganic framework is still not completely clear under optical electronic excitation. In this work, we employ first-principles molecular dynamics with electronic excitation effects to prove that the hydrogen-bond interaction between the molecular cation and the inorganic lattice can be readily adjusted by seve...

Immobilization of Reduced Graphene Oxide on Hydrogen Terminated Silicon Substrate as a Transparent Conductive Protector.

Silicon is a promising electrode material for photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic reaction. However, the chemically active surface of silicon will be easily oxidized when exposed to the oxidation environment. We immobilized graphene oxide (GO) onto hydrogen-terminated silicon (H-Si) and reduced it through ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation. This acted as an ultrathin conductive layer to protect H-Si from oxidation. The elemental evolution of GO was studied by X-ray photoelectron s...

The Role of Exact Exchange and Relativistic Approximations in Calculating (19)F Magnetic Shielding in Solids Using a Cluster Ansatz.

Calculations of (19)F magnetic shielding in various materials are presented. In calculations on gas-phase molecules, the variation of magnetic shielding with the amount of Hartree-Fock exchange (HFX) in the functional demonstrates that excellent agreement with experiment is obtained with an admixture of 50%, here denoted PBE0 (50%). Calculations at the PBE, PBE0 (25%), and PBE0 (50%) levels on 10 crystalline organofluorines and 15 crystalline inorganic fluorides, in which a cluster ansatz is used to model t...

Diverse carrier mobility of monolayer BNCx: A combined density functional theory and Boltzmann transport theory study.

BNCX monolayer as a kind of two-dimensional material has numerous chemical atomic ratios and arrangements with different electronic structures. Via calculations on the basis of density functional theory and Boltzmann transport theory under deformation potential approximation, the band structures and carrier mobilities of BNCX (x=1,2,3,4) nanosheets are systematically investigated. The calculated results show that BNC2-1 is a material with very small band gap (0.02 eV) among all the structures while other BN...

Sulfadiazine Salicylaldehyde-Based Schiff Bases: Synthesis, Antimicrobial Activity and Cytotoxicity.

The resistance among microbes has brought an urgent need for new drugs. Thus, we synthesized a series of Schiff bases derived from the sulfa drug sulfadiazine and various salicylaldehydes. The resulting 4-[(2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino]-N-(pyrimidin-2-yl)benzene-sulfonamides were characterized and evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, moulds, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacteria (M. kansasii, M. avium) and their cytotoxicity was determined. Among bacteria, the ...

Formation and Characterization of Hydrogen Boride Sheets Derived from MgB2 by Cation Exchange.

Two-dimensional (2D) materials are promising for applications in a wide range of fields because of their unique properties. Hydrogen boride sheets, a new 2D material recently predicted from theory, exhibit intriguing electronic and mechanical properties as well as hydrogen storage capacity. Here, we report the experimental realization of 2D hydrogen boride sheets with an empirical formula of H1B1, produced by exfoliation and complete ion-exchange between protons and magnesium cations in magnesium diboride (...

The Effect of Thickness and Chemical Reduction of Graphene Oxide on Nanoscale Friction.

The tribological properties of two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are quite different from three-dimensional (3D) continuum materials because of the unique mechanical responses of 2D layers. It is known that friction on graphene shows a remarkable decreasing behavior as the number of layers increases, which is caused by the puckering effect. On other graphene derivatives, such as graphene oxide (GO) or reduced graphene oxide (rGO), the thickness dependence of friction is important because of the possibiliti...

Effect of Non-Ionic Surfactants on Dispersion and Polar Interactions in the Adsorption of Cellulases onto Lignin.

Residual lignin in pretreated biomass impedes enzymatic hydrolysis. Non-ionic surfactants are known to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass but their mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. This study investigates the effect of a non-ionic surfactant, Tween 80, on the adsorption of cellulases onto model lignin substrates. Lignin substrates were prepared by spin coating of flat substrates with three different types of lignin: organosolv lignin, kraft lignin, and milled wood l...

Structural and Kinetic Characterization of the Intrinsically Disordered Protein SeV NTAIL Through Enhanced Sampling Simulations.

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are emerging as an important class of the proteome. Being able to interact with different molecular targets, they participate in many physiological and pathological activities. However, due to their intrinsically heterogeneous nature, determining the equilibrium properties of IDPs is still a challenge for biophysics. Herein, we applied state-of-the-art enhanced sampling methods to Sev NTAIL, a test case of IDPs, and constructed a bin-based kinetic model to unveil the...


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