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PubMed Journals Articles About "Orchid Cellmark" RSS

20:53 EDT 22nd August 2017 | BioPortfolio

Orchid Cellmark PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Orchid Cellmark articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Orchid Cellmark" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 28

A perspective on orchid seed and protocorm development.

This perspective draws attention to the functional organization of orchid seed and protocorm during the course of development. The orchid embryos have a well-organized developmental plan generating a blue-print of a protocorm as they mature. The different phases of embryo development in orchids, i.e. histodifferentiation, storage product synthesis and accumulation, and maturation are essentially similar to other flowering plants. The protocorm is considered as a unique structure designed to establish symbio...


Colonization strategy of the endophytic plant growth promoting strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Klebsiella oxytoca on the seeds, seedlings and roots of the epiphytic orchid, Dendrobium nobile Lindl.

Orchids form strong mycorrhizal associations, but their interactions with bacteria are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the distribution of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria at different stages of orchid development and to study if there is any selective specificity in choosing PGPR partners.

Genomic diversity guides conservation strategies among rare terrestrial orchid species when taxonomy remains uncertain.

Species are often used as the unit for conservation, but may not be suitable for species complexes where taxa are difficult to distinguish. Under such circumstances, it may be more appropriate to consider species groups or populations as evolutionarily significant units (ESUs). A population genomic approach was employed to investigate the diversity within and among closely related species to create a more robust, lineage-specific conservation strategy for a nationally endangered terrestrial orchid and its r...


Orchid Bee (Apidae: Euglossini) Communities in Atlantic Forest Remnants and Restored Areas in Paraná State, Brazil.

In this study, we compare orchid bee communities surveyed in four forest remnants of the Atlantic Forest and four reforested areas characterized by seasonal semi-deciduous forest vegetation in different successional stages (mature and secondary vegetation), located in southern Brazil. The sizes of forest remnants and reforested areas varied from 32.1 to 583.9 ha and from 11.3 to 33.3 ha, respectively. All reforested areas were located near one forest remnant. During samplings, totaling nine per study area...

Effects of distance from models on the fitness of floral mimics.

Rewardless plants can attract pollinators by mimicking floral traits of rewarding heterospecific plants. This should result in the pollination success of floral mimics being dependent on the relative abundance of their models, as pollinator abundance and conditioning on model signals should be greater in the vicinity of the models. However, the attraction of pollinators to signals of the models may be partially innate, such that spatial isolation of mimics from model species may not strongly affect pollinat...

Patterns of orchid bee species diversity and turnover among forested plateaus of central Amazonia.

The knowledge of spatial pattern and geographic beta-diversity is of great importance for biodiversity conservation and interpreting ecological information. Tropical forests, especially the Amazon Rainforest, are well known for their high species richness and low similarity in species composition between sites, both at local and regional scales. We aimed to determine the effect and relative importance of area, isolation and climate on species richness and turnover in orchid bee assemblages among plateaus in...

Evaluating five different Loci (rbcL, rpoB, rpoC1, matK and ITS) for DNA Barcoding of Indian Orchids.

Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of angiosperms, is represented in India by 1600 species distributed in diverse habitats. Orchids are in high demand due to their beautiful flowers and therapeutic properties. Overexploitation and habitat destruction have made many orchid species endangered. In the absence of effective identification methods, illicit trade of orchids continues unabated. Considering DNA barcoding as a potential identification tool, species discrimination capability of five loci, ITS ma...

A re-evaluation of the final step of vanillin biosynthesis in the orchid Vanilla planifolia.

A recent publication describes an enzyme from the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia with the ability to convert ferulic acid directly to vanillin. The authors propose that this represents the final step in the biosynthesis of vanillin, which is then converted to its storage form, glucovanillin, by glycosylation. The existence of such a "vanillin synthase" could enable biotechnological production of vanillin from ferulic acid using a "natural" vanilla enzyme. The proposed vanillin synthase exhibits high iden...

You are what you get from your fungi: nitrogen stable isotope patterns in Epipactis species.

Partially mycoheterotrophic plants are enriched in 13 C and 15 N compared to autotrophic plants. Here, it is hypothesized that the type of mycorrhizal fungi found in orchid roots is responsible for variation in 15 N enrichment of leaf tissue in partially mycoheterotrophic orchids.

Concomitant loss of NDH complex-related genes within chloroplast and nuclear genomes in some orchids.

Chloroplast NAD(P)H dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex consists of ~30 subunits from both the nuclear and chloroplast genomes and is ubiquitous across most land plants. In some orchids, such as Phalaenopsis equestris, Dendrobium officinale and D. catenatum, most of the 11 chloroplast genome encoded ndh genes (cp-ndh) have been lost. Here we investigated whether functional cp-ndh genes have been completely lost in these orchids or whether they have been transferred and retained in the nuclear genomes. Further,...

Studies on secondary metabolite profiling, anti-inflammatory potential, in vitro photoprotective and skin-aging related enzyme inhibitory activities of Malaxis acuminata, a threatened orchid of nutraceutical importance.

Malaxis acuminata D. Don., a small, terrestrial orchid, is endemic to tropical Himalayas at an altitude of 1200-2000m asl. The dried pseudobulbs are important ingredients of century old ayurvedic drug 'Ashtavarga' and a polyherbal immune-booster nutraceutical 'Chyavanprash', known to restore vigour, vitality and youthfulness. Considering tremendous medicinal importance of this threatened orchid species, a detailed study was undertaken for the first time to address its antioxidant potential, secondary metabo...

Photosynthetic, morphological, and reproductive variations in Cypripedium tibeticum in relation to different light regimes in a subalpine forest.

Cypripedium tibeticum, a subalpine orchid species, inhabits various habitats of subalpine forests, mainly including the forest edge (FE), forest gap (FG), and understory (UST), which have significantly different light intensities (FE > FG > UST). However, the ecological and physiological influences caused by different light regimes in this species are still poorly understood. In the present study, photosynthetic, morphological, and reproductive characteristics were comprehensively studied in plants of C. ti...

Mycorrhizal specificity does not limit the distribution of an endangered orchid species.

What factors determine the distribution of a species is a central question in ecology and conservation biology. In general, the distribution of plant species is assumed to be controlled by dispersal or environmentally controlled recruitment. For plant species which are critically dependent on mycorrhizal symbionts for germination and seedling establishment, specificity in mycorrhizal associations and availability of suitable mycorrhizal fungi can be expected to have a major impact on successful colonization...

Preponderance of clonality triggers loss of sex in Bulbophyllum bicolor, an obligately outcrossing epiphytic orchid.

Vegetative propagation (clonal growth) conveys several evolutionary advantages that positively affect life history fitness and is a widespread phenomenon among angiosperms that also reproduce sexually. However, a bias towards clonality can interfere with sexual reproduction and lead to sexual extinction, although a dearth of effective genetic tools and mathematical models for clonal plants has hampered assessment of these impacts. Using the endangered tropical epiphytic or lithophytic orchid...

When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid.

Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing.

Symbiont abundance can affect host plant population dynamics.

Symbioses are almost universal, but little is known about how symbiont abundance can affect host performance. Many orchids undergo vegetative dormancy and frequent and protracted dormancy have been associated with population declines. If mycorrhizal fungi affect host plant performance, those effects are likely to alter patterns of vegetative dormancy. The goal of this study was to determine whether the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi is related to the likelihood of entering dormancy and whether fungal abunda...

Do Distinct Biomes Influence the Cuticular Chemical Profile in Orchid Bees?

Cuticular chemical profiles of Euglossa cordata L. males were analyzed to test whether ecological predictors affect their composition and relative proportion. Males were collected in areas of Caatinga and Atlantic Forest from Brazil during two distinct seasonal periods. We found 48 compounds from the cuticular extracts of males, which consisted of hydrocarbons (71.39%), acetates (16.79%), esters (10.5%), alcohols and others (1.31%). We verified that when specimens were separated between biomes, they did not...

Epitypification with an emended description of Tropidia connata (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae, Tropidieae).

We found several specimens of Tropidia connata, a mycoheterotrophic orchid from Borneo, with features which have never been described in any of the existing literature, namely subterranean tubers. We mainly focus on the importance of the subterranean structures in comparison with the mycoheterotrophic genus Kalimantanorchis from the tribe Tropidieae. This finding of the tuberous structure gives a new insight into the classification of mycoheterotrohic species of Tropidieae and might affect the generic place...

Taxonomy of Cyrtochilum-alliance (Orchidaceae) in the light of molecular and morphological data.

The generic separateness and specific composition of the orchid genus Cyrtochilum was discussed for almost two centuries. Over the years several smaller taxa were segregated from this taxon, but their separateness was recently questioned based on molecular studies outcomes. The aim of our study was to revise concepts of morphological-based generic delimitation in Cyrtochilum-alliance and to compare it with the results of genetic analysis. We used phylogenetic framework in combination with phenetical analysi...

Hormonal and morphological changes during seed development of Cypripedium japonicum.

With the goal of evaluating the factors that may be influencing the reproductive success of an endangered, terrestrial orchid Cypripedium japonicum Thunb., the anatomical and morphological characteristics of seed development were assessed, as were the levels of endogenous hormones to investigate the possible relationship between hormones and seed development. The results showed that morphological characteristics of seeds were changing from milky white and filiform to brown and fusiform. The development of o...

Anthocyanin biosynthesis regulation of DhMYB2 and DhbHLH1 in Dendrobium hybrids petals.

Dendrobium hybrids orchid are popular throughout the world. They have various floral color and pigmentation patterns that are mainly caused by anthocyanins. It is well established that anthocyanin biosynthesis is regulated by the interplay between MYB and bHLH transcription factors (TF) in most plants. In this study, we identified one R2R3-MYB gene, DhMYB2, and one bHLH gene, DhbHLH1, from a Dendrobium hybrid. Their expression profiles were related to anthocyanin pigmentation in Dendrobium petals. Transient...

Unveiling the transformation and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter in contrasting hydrothermal vents using fluorescence EEM-PARAFAC.

The submarine hydrothermal systems are extreme environments where active cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM) may occur. However, little is known about the optical properties and bioavailability of hydrothermal DOM, which could provide valuable insights into its transformation processes and biogeochemical reactivity. The quantity, quality, and bioavailability of DOM were investigated for four very different hydrothermal vents east of Taiwan, using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorption spectroscopy...

The carbon and nitrogen ecophysiologies of two endemic tropical orchids mirrors those of their temperate relatives and the local environment.

Orchids are one of the most widely distributed plant families. However, current research on the ecophysiology of terrestrial orchids is biased towards temperate species. Thus, it is currently unknown whether tropical terrestrial orchids belong to similar trophic guilds as their temperate relatives. To examine the ecophysiologies of two tropical terrestrial orchids, I analysed the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions and nitrogen concentrations of the Hawaiian endemics Anoectochilus sandvicensis a...

Comparison of green and albino individuals of the partially mycoheterotrophic orchid Epipactis helleborine on molecular identities of mycorrhizal fungi, nutritional modes, and gene expression in mycorrhizal roots.

Some green orchids obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi, as well as from photosynthesis. These partially mycoheterotrophic orchids sometimes produce fully achlorophyllous, leaf-bearing (albino) variants. Comparing green and albino individuals of these orchids will help to uncover the molecular mechanisms associated with mycoheterotrophy. We compared green and albino Epipactis helleborine by molecular barcoding of mycorrhizal fungi, nutrient sources based on (15) N and (13) C abundances, and gene expre...

Looks matter: changes in flower form affect pollination effectiveness in a sexually-deceptive orchid.

Many species of the sexually-deceptive genus Ophrys are characterized by insect-like flowers. Their form has been traditionally considered to play an important role in pollinator attraction and manipulation. Yet the evolution of the floral form remains insufficiently understood. We hypothesize that pollinator-mediated selection is essential for driving floral form evolution in Ophrys, but that form components are being subjected to varying selection pressures depending on their role in mediating interaction...


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