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07:25 EDT 23rd August 2014 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Orchid Cellmark" PubMed Articles, all 18

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Growth Promotion-Related miRNAs in Oncidium Orchid Roots Colonized by the Endophytic Fungus Piriformospora indica.

Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized o...

In situ seed baiting to isolate germination-enhancing fungi for an epiphytic orchid, Dendrobium aphyllum (Orchidaceae).

Orchid conservation efforts, using seeds and species-specific fungi that support seed germination, require the isolation, identification, and germination enhancement testing of symbiotic fungi. However, few studies have focused on developing such techniques for the epiphytes that constitute the majority of orchids. In this study, conducted in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Yunnan, China, we used seeds of Dendrobium aphyllum, a locally endangered and medicinally valuable epiphytic orchid, to attrac...

Conservation Genetics of an Endangered Lady's Slipper Orchid: Cypripedium japonicum in China.

Knowledge about the population genetic variation of the endangered orchid, Cypripedium japonicum, is conducive to the development of conservation strategies. Here, we examined the levels and partitioning of inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) diversity (109 loci) in five populations of this orchid to gain insight into its genetic variation and population structure in Eastern and Central China. It harbored considerably lower levels of genetic diversity both at the population (percentage of polymorphic loci (...

Helvolic acid, an antibacterial nortriterpenoid from a fungal endophyte, Xylaria sp. of orchid Anoectochilus setaceus endemic to Sri Lanka.

An endophytic fungus was isolated from surface sterilized leaf segments of Anoectochilus setaceus, an orchid endemic to Sri Lanka, and was identified as Xylaria sp. by morphological characters and DNA sequencing. Bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation of the organic extract of a laboratory culture of this fungus led to the isolation of the known antibacterial helvolic acid. Helvolic acid was active against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis [minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), 2 μg m...

Gene expression in mycorrhizal orchid protocorms suggests a friendly plant-fungus relationship.

Orchid mycorrhiza has been often interpreted as an antagonistic relationship. Our data on mycorrhizal protocorms do not support this view as plant defence genes were not induced, whereas some nodulin-like genes were significantly up-regulated. Orchids fully depend on symbiotic interactions with specific soil fungi for seed germination and early development. Germinated seeds give rise to a protocorm, a heterotrophic organ that acquires nutrients, including organic carbon, from the mycorrhizal partner. It has...

Comparative Chloroplast Genomes of Photosynthetic Orchids: Insights into Evolution of the Orchidaceae and Development of Molecular Markers for Phylogenetic Applications.

The orchid family Orchidaceae is one of the largest angiosperm families, including many species of important economic value. While chloroplast genomes are very informative for systematics and species identification, there is very limited information available on chloroplast genomes in the Orchidaceae. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genomes of the medicinal plant Dendrobium officinale and the ornamental orchid Cypripedium macranthos, demonstrating their gene content and order and potential RNA edit...

Seedling Development and Evaluation of Genetic Stability of Cryopreserved Dendrobium Hybrid Mature Seeds.

Vitrification, a simple, fast, and recommended cryopreservation method for orchid germplasm conservation, was evaluated for Dendrobium hybrid "Dong Yai" mature seeds. The genetic stability of regenerated seedlings was also evaluated using flow cytometry. Mature seeds from this hybrid were submitted to plant vitrification solution (PVS2) for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 h at 0 °C. Subsequently, they were plunged into liquid nitrogen (LN) at -196 °C for 1 h and recovered in half-strength Murashige and Sk...

Cold response in Phalaenopsis aphrodite and characterization of PaCBF1 and PaICE1.

Phalaenopsis is a winter-blooming orchid genus commonly cultivated in tropical Asian countries. Because orchid is one of the most economically important flower crops in Taiwan, it is crucial to understand its response to cold and other abiotic stresses. The present study focused on gene regulation of P. aphrodite in response to abiotic stress, mainly cold. Our results demonstrate that P. aphrodite is sensitive to low temperatures, especially in its reproductive stage. We found that after exposure to 4°C, p...

Evidence for Isolation-by-Habitat among Populations of an Epiphytic Orchid Species on a Small Oceanic Island.

Identifying factors that promote population differentiation is of interest for understanding the early stages of speciation. Gene flow among populations inhabiting different environments can be reduced by geographical distance (isolation-by-distance) or by divergent selection resulting from local adaptation (isolation-by-ecology). Few studies have investigated the influence of these factors in small oceanic islands where the influence of geographic distance is expected to be null but where habitat diversity...

Caught in the act: pollination of sexually deceptive trap-flowers by fungus gnats in Pterostylis (Orchidaceae).

Background and AimsPterostylis is an Australasian terrestrial orchid genus of more than 400 species, most of which use a motile, touch-sensitive labellum to trap dipteran pollinators. Despite studies dating back to 1872, the mechanism of pollinator attraction has remained elusive. This study tested whether the fungus gnat-pollinated Pterostylis sanguinea secures pollination by sexual deception.MethodsThe literature was used to establish criteria for confirming sexual deception as a pollination strategy. Obs...

Expression of paralogous SEP-, FUL-, AG- and STK-like MADS-box genes in wild-type and peloric Phalaenopsis flowers.

The diverse flowers of Orchidaceae are the result of several major morphological transitions, among them the most studied is the differentiation of the inner median tepal into the labellum, a perianth organ key in pollinator attraction. Type A peloria lacking stamens and with ectopic labella in place of inner lateral tepals are useful for testing models on the genes specifying these organs by comparing their patterns of expression between wild-type and peloric flowers. Previous studies focused on DEFICIENS-...

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Speciation via floral heterochrony and presumed mycorrhizal host switching of endemic butterfly orchids on the Azorean archipelago.

• Premise of the study: Most orchid species native to the Macaronesian islands reflect immigration from western Europe or North Africa followed by anagenesis. The only putative exception is the butterfly orchids (Platanthera) of the Azores, where three species apparently reflect at least one cladogenetic speciation event. This multidisciplinary study explores the origin, speciation, phenotypic, and genotypic cohesion of these Azorean species and their mainland relatives.• Methods: Plants of Platanthera...

Systematic revision of Platanthera in the Azorean archipelago: not one but three species, including arguably Europe's rarest orchid.

Background and Aims. The Macaronesian islands represent an excellent crucible for exploring speciation. This dominantly phenotypic study complements a separate genotypic study, together designed to identify and circumscribe Platanthera species (butterfly-orchids) on the Azores, and to determine their geographic origin(s) and underlying speciation mechanism(s). Methods. 216 individuals of Platanthera from 30 Azorean localities spanning all nine Azorean islands were measured for 38 morphological characters, s...

De Novo Transcriptome Assembly from Inflorescence of Orchis italica: Analysis of Coding and Non-Coding Transcripts.

The floral transcriptome of Orchis italica, a wild orchid species, was obtained using Illumina RNA-seq technology and specific de novo assembly and analysis tools. More than 100 million raw reads were processed resulting in 132,565 assembled transcripts and 86,079 unigenes with an average length of 606 bp and N50 of 956 bp. Functional annotation assigned 38,984 of the unigenes to records present in the NCBI non-redundant protein database, 32,161 of them to Gene Ontology terms, 15,775 of them to Eukaryotic O...

Spatio-temporal Genetic Structure of a Tropical Bee Species Suggests High Dispersal Over a Fragmented Landscape.

Habitat destruction threatens biodiversity by reducing the amount of available resources and connectivity among geographic areas. For organisms living in fragmented habitats, population persistence may depend on dispersal, which maintains gene flow among fragments and can prevent inbreeding within them. It is centrally important to understand patterns of dispersal for bees living in fragmented areas given the importance of pollination systems and recently documented declines in bee populations. We used popu...

Deep Sequencing-Based Analysis of the Cymbidium ensifolium Floral Transcriptome.

Cymbidium ensifolium is a Chinese Cymbidium with an elegant shape, beautiful appearance, and a fragrant aroma. C. ensifolium has a long history of cultivation in China and it has excellent commercial value as a potted plant and cut flower. The development of C. ensifolium genomic resources has been delayed because of its large genome size. Taking advantage of technical and cost improvement of RNA-Seq, we extracted total mRNA from flower buds and mature flowers and obtained a total of 9.52 Gb of filtered nuc...

Evaluation of Internal Control for Gene Expression in Phalaenopsis by Quantitative Real-Time PCR.

The selection of appropriate reference genes is one of the most important steps to obtain reliable results for normalizing quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) of MADS-box gene in Phalaenopsis. In this study, we cloned 12 candidate reference genes including 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1α), cytoskeletal structural protein actin (ACT1, ACT2, ACT3, ACT4, ACT5), ubiquitin protein (UBQ1 and UBQ2), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP...

Possibly Relevant

Genetic-evolutionary studies on cultivated cannas : VI. Origin and evolution of ornamental taxa.

Hybridization has played a dominant and decisive role in the origin of ornamental cannas. This has been made possible by the ecospecific differentiation of the parental species, which implies lack of barriers and a good deal of recombination associated with reasonably high fertility.Colour differences between species are controlled by a number of genes and their intensifiers, inhibitors, lethals, etc. From recombination in interspecific hybrids of such a wide range of genes, segregating simultaneously and i...


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