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PubMed Journals Articles About "Orchid Cellmark" RSS

13:43 EST 19th February 2017 | BioPortfolio

Orchid Cellmark PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Orchid Cellmark articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Orchid Cellmark" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 25

Vitrification-based cryopreservation of protocorm-like bodies of an endangered lady's slipper orchid: Paphiopedilum niveum (Rchb.f.) Stein.

Paphiopedilum niveum (Rchb.f.) Stein, an endangered lady's slipper orchid, is listed in CITES Appendix I and thus requires conserving.


Integrative taxonomy of the fly orchid group: insights from chemical ecology.

Several authors have recently stressed the need to develop an integrative approach in taxonomy, but studies applying such an approach to Mediterranean orchids are scarce. In sexually deceptive orchids from the taxonomically difficult genus Ophrys, pollination is specific and performed by male insects attracted to the flowers by sex pheromone-mimicking floral scents. Floral compounds are therefore of primary importance for reproductive isolation and species delimitations in this genus. In the fly orchid grou...

Differences in carbon source utilisation by orchid mycorrhizal fungi from common and endangered species of Caladenia (Orchidaceae).

Terrestrial orchids depend on orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) as symbionts for their survival, growth and nutrition. The ability of OMF from endangered orchid species to compete for available resources with OMF from common species may affect the distribution, abundance and therefore conservation status of their orchid hosts. Eight symbiotically effective OMF from endangered and more common Caladenia species were tested for their ability to utilise complex insoluble and simple soluble carbon sources produced ...


Effects of distance from models on the fitness of floral mimics.

Rewardless plants can attract pollinators by mimicking floral traits of rewarding heterospecific plants. This should result in the pollination success of floral mimics being dependent on the relative abundance of their models, as pollinator abundance and conditioning on model signals should be greater in the vicinity of the models. However, the attraction of pollinators to signals of the models may be partially innate, such that spatial isolation of mimics from model species may not strongly affect pollinat...

Evidence for mixed sexual and asexual reproduction in the rare European mycoheterotrophic orchid Epipogium aphyllum, Orchidaceae (ghost orchid).

Despite their significant capacity to propagate vegetatively, most orchids reproduce via seeds. Sexual reproduction via seed is commonly reported, in contrast to apomixis, whereby seeds are clones of the mother. Although insect pollination and autonomous self-pollination exist in mycoheterotrophic plants, the reproductive embryology of these plants remains under-studied. This paper provides evidence for the co-occurrence of both sexual and apomictic reproduction in a population of mycoheterotrophic plants -...

Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids.

Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of "Chian Xen Queen" contained ...

Novel Endorna-like viruses, including three with two open reading frames, challenge the membership criteria and taxonomy of the Endornaviridae.

Viruses associated with wild orchids and their mycorrhizal fungi are poorly studied. Using a shotgun sequencing approach, we identified eight novel endornavirus-like genome sequences from isolates of Ceratobasidium fungi isolated from pelotons within root cortical cells of wild indigenous orchid species Microtis media, Pterostylis sanguinea and an undetermined species of Pterostylis in Western Australia. They represent the first endornaviruses to be described from orchid mycorrhizal fungi and from the Austr...

Olfactory specialization for perfume collection in male orchid bees.

Insects rely on the olfactory system to detect a vast diversity of airborne molecules in their environment. Highly sensitive olfactory tuning is expected to evolve when detection of a particular chemical with great precision is required in the context of foraging and/or finding mates. Male neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) collect odoriferous substances from multiple sources, store them in specialized tibial pouches and later expose them at display sites, presumably as mating signals to females. Previous...

Mycorrhizal specificity does not limit the distribution of an endangered orchid species.

What factors determine the distribution of a species is a central question in ecology and conservation biology. In general, the distribution of plant species is assumed to be controlled by dispersal or environmentally controlled recruitment. For plant species which are critically dependent on mycorrhizal symbionts for germination and seedling establishment, specificity in mycorrhizal associations and availability of suitable mycorrhizal fungi can be expected to have a major impact on successful colonization...

Orchid conservation: further links.

Due in great part to their often complex interactions with mycorrhizal fungi, pollinators and host trees, Orchidaceae present particular challenges for conservation. Furthermore, orchids, as potentially the largest family of angiosperms with >26000 species, species complexes and frequent hybrid formation, are complex to catalogue. Following a highlight in 2015, a further seven papers focusing on orchids, their interactions with beneficial organisms, pollinators and mycorrhiza, and other factors relating to ...

When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid.

Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing.

Symbiont abundance can affect host plant population dynamics.

Symbioses are almost universal, but little is known about how symbiont abundance can affect host performance. Many orchids undergo vegetative dormancy and frequent and protracted dormancy have been associated with population declines. If mycorrhizal fungi affect host plant performance, those effects are likely to alter patterns of vegetative dormancy. The goal of this study was to determine whether the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi is related to the likelihood of entering dormancy and whether fungal abunda...

Two New Stilbenoids from the Aerial Parts of Arundina graminifolia (Orchidaceae).

Two new phenanthrene derivatives, a phenanthrenequinone named arundiquinone (1) and a 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene named arundigramin (2) together with a known lignin dimer (3) and seven known stilbenoids (4-10) were isolated from the aerial parts of the Asian orchid Arundina graminifolia. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D, 2D NMR (heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation spectroscopy (HMBC), an...

HKUST-1 as a Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Synthesis of Vanillin.

Vanillin (4-hydoxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) is the main component of the extract of vanilla bean. The natural vanilla scent is a mixture of approximately 200 different odorant compounds in addition to vanillin. The natural extraction of vanillin (from the orchid Vanilla planifolia, Vanilla tahitiensis and Vanilla pompon) represents only 1% of the worldwide production and since this process is expensive and very long, the rest of the production of vanillin is synthesized. Many biotechnological approaches can b...

Anthocyanin biosynthesis regulation of DhMYB2 and DhbHLH1 in Dendrobium hybrids petals.

Dendrobium hybrids orchid are popular throughout the world. They have various floral color and pigmentation patterns that are mainly caused by anthocyanins. It is well established that anthocyanin biosynthesis is regulated by the interplay between MYB and bHLH transcription factors (TF) in most plants. In this study, we identified one R2R3-MYB gene, DhMYB2, and one bHLH gene, DhbHLH1, from a Dendrobium hybrid. Their expression profiles were related to anthocyanin pigmentation in Dendrobium petals. Transient...

Gigantol Inhibits Epithelial to Mesenchymal Process in Human Lung Cancer Cells.

Lung cancer remains a leading public health problem as evidenced by its increasing death rate. The main cause of death in lung cancer patients is cancer metastasis. The metastatic behavior of lung cancer cells becomes enhanced when cancer cells undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Gigantol, a bibenzyl compound extracted from the Thai orchid, Dendrobium draconis, has been shown to have promising therapeutic potential against cancer cells, which leads to the hypothesis that gigantol may be able...

Expression analysis of fertilization/early embryogenesis-associated genes in Phalaenopsis orchids.

One of the distinct reproductive programs in orchid species is pollination-triggered ovule development and megasporogenesis. During sexual reproduction, fertilization occurs days to months after pollination. The molecular mechanisms evolved to carry out this strategic reproductive program remain unclear. In the August issue of Plant Physiology (1) , we report comprehensive studies of comparative genome-wide gene expression in various reproductive tissues and the molecular events associated with developmenta...

Analysis of genetic diversity of Laeliinae (Orchidaceae) in the State of Sergipe using ISSR markers.

The Orchidaceae represent one of the largest and most diverse families on the planet. However, this family is constantly threatened by predators and by the advancement of urban centers over its natural habitats. The objective of this study was to use inter-simple sequence repeat markers to evaluate the genetic diversity between orchid accessions of the Laeliinae subtribe, which comprise part of the Orchidaceae study collection at the Department of Agronomic Engineering of the Federal University of Sergipe. ...

Unveiling the transformation and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter in contrasting hydrothermal vents using fluorescence EEM-PARAFAC.

The submarine hydrothermal systems are extreme environments where active cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM) may occur. However, little is known about the optical properties and bioavailability of hydrothermal DOM, which could provide valuable insights into its transformation processes and biogeochemical reactivity. The quantity, quality, and bioavailability of DOM were investigated for four very different hydrothermal vents east of Taiwan, using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorption spectroscopy...

The carbon and nitrogen ecophysiologies of two endemic tropical orchids mirrors those of their temperate relatives and the local environment.

Orchids are one of the most widely distributed plant families. However, current research on the ecophysiology of terrestrial orchids is biased towards temperate species. Thus, it is currently unknown whether tropical terrestrial orchids belong to similar trophic guilds as their temperate relatives. To examine the ecophysiologies of two tropical terrestrial orchids, I analysed the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions and nitrogen concentrations of the Hawaiian endemics Anoectochilus sandvicensis a...

DNA barcoding of tuberous Orchidoideae: A resource for identification of orchids used in Salep.

Tubers of terrestrial orchids are harvested and traded from the eastern Mediterranean to the Caspian Sea for the traditional product Salep. Over-exploitation of wild populations and increased middle-class prosperity have escalated prices for Salep, causing overharvesting, depletion of native populations and providing an incentive to expand harvesting to untapped areas in Iran. Limited morphological distinctiveness among traded Salep tubers renders species identification impossible, making it difficult to es...

The tiny-leaved orchid Cephalanthera subaphylla obtains most of its carbon via mycoheterotrophy.

The evolution of mycoheterotrophy has been accompanied by extreme reductions in plant leaf size and photosynthetic capacity. Partially mycoheterotrophic plants, which obtain carbon from both photosynthesis and their mycorrhizal fungi, include species with leaves of normal size and others that are tiny-leaved. Thus, plant species may lose their leaves in a gradual process of size reduction rather than through a single step mutation. Little is known about how the degree of mycoheterotrophy changes during redu...

Genome-wide identification and characterization of TCP genes involved in ovule development of Phalaenopsis equestris.

TEOSINTE-BRANCHED/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors known to have a role in multiple aspects of plant growth and development at the cellular, organ and tissue levels. However, there has been no related study of TCPs in orchids. Here we identified 23 TCP genes from the genome sequence of Phalaenopsis equestris Phylogenetic analysis distinguished two homology classes of PeTCP transcription factor families: classes I and II. Class II was further divided into two subclasses, ...

Comparison of green and albino individuals of the partially mycoheterotrophic orchid Epipactis helleborine on molecular identities of mycorrhizal fungi, nutritional modes, and gene expression in mycorrhizal roots.

Some green orchids obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi, as well as from photosynthesis. These partially mycoheterotrophic orchids sometimes produce fully achlorophyllous, leaf-bearing (albino) variants. Comparing green and albino individuals of these orchids will help to uncover the molecular mechanisms associated with mycoheterotrophy. We compared green and albino Epipactis helleborine by molecular barcoding of mycorrhizal fungi, nutrient sources based on (15) N and (13) C abundances, and gene expre...

Dendrobium chrysanthum ethanolic extract induces apoptosis via p53 up-regulation in HeLa cells and inhibits tumor progression in mice.

Background Dendrobium is one of the diverse genus of orchid plants. It possesses a number of pharmacological activities and has long been used in traditional system of medicine. The goal of this study was to investigate the apoptosis inducing property of the ethanolic extract from the leaves of Dendrobium chrysanthum, a species of Dendrobium whose anticancer role has not been ascertained yet. Methods To evaluate the anticancer activity of the ethanolic extract of D. chrysanthum in vitro in HeLa (human cervi...


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