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PubMed Journals Articles About "Peripheral Nervous System" RSS

22:13 EDT 19th September 2017 | BioPortfolio

Peripheral Nervous System PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Peripheral Nervous System articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "peripheral nervous system" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 17,000+

Neuropathic Pain: Central vs. Peripheral Mechanisms.

Our goal is to examine the processes-both central and peripheral-that underlie the development of peripherally-induced neuropathic pain (pNP) and to highlight recent evidence for mechanisms contributing to its maintenance. While many pNP conditions are initiated by damage to the peripheral nervous system (PNS), their persistence appears to rely on maladaptive processes within the central nervous system (CNS). The potential existence of an autonomous pain-generating mechanism in the CNS creates significant i...


Comparison of different sequences of MRI and Ultrasongram with Nerve Conduction Studies in peripheral neuropathies.

Peripheral neuropathies refer to a group of disorders in which there is damage to the nerves of the peripheral nervous system. Electrophysiological studies are the main stay for the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathies. However, direct visualization of the nerves is possible with exact localization of site of pathology with high resolution ultrasonogram and 3 Tesla MRI scanner, and newer MR sequences.

Liver Disease and Neurology.

Neurologists often encounter patients with acute and chronic liver disease and must be aware of how these diseases can affect the nervous system. This is particularly true when evaluating patients with alterations in cognition and level of consciousness. Wilson disease, while uncommon, is a treatable condition with many neurologic and psychiatric symptoms. Neurologic disorders associated with liver disease may affect not only the brain, but also the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. This article re...


Clinical indications for high-resolution MRI diagnostics of the peripheral nervous system.

Peripheral neuropathies are common and diagnostically often challenging disorders. Difficulties particularly exist in lesion localization and recognition of complex spatial lesion patterns.

Researching Fiber Networks: Computational Modeling of Complex Fibrous Tissue Geometries.

Many types of human tissue-such as the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, and muscles, including the heart muscle-are fibrous in nature. Isotropic human models that assume homogeneous volumes for every individual tissue do not properly take this into account.

Relation of insulin resistance to neurocognitive function and electroencephalography in obese children.

Childhood obesity may lead to neuronal impairment in both the peripheral and the central nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the impact of obesity and insulin resistance (IR) on the central nervous system and neurocognitive functions in children.

Renal Disease and Neurology.

Neurologic dysfunction is prevalent in patients with acute and chronic renal disease and may affect the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, or both. Neurologic manifestations may result directly from the uremic state or as a consequence of renal replacement therapy. Early recognition of neurologic dysfunction may provide opportunities for intervention and reduced morbidity.

Evolution of the Human Nervous System Function, Structure, and Development.

The nervous system-in particular, the brain and its cognitive abilities-is among humans' most distinctive and impressive attributes. How the nervous system has changed in the human lineage and how it differs from that of closely related primates is not well understood. Here, we consider recent comparative analyses of extant species that are uncovering new evidence for evolutionary changes in the size and the number of neurons in the human nervous system, as well as the cellular and molecular reorganization ...

Central and peripheral nervous system involvement caused by Zika and chikungunya coinfection.

Peripherally derived FGF21 promotes remyelination in the central nervous system.

Demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS) leads to severe neurological deficits that can be partially reversed by spontaneous remyelination. Because the CNS is isolated from the peripheral milieu by the blood-brain barrier, remyelination is thought to be controlled by the CNS microenvironment. However, in this work we found that factors derived from peripheral tissue leak into the CNS after injury and promote remyelination in a murine model of toxin-induced demyelination. Mechanistically, leakage of...

Autoimmune Neurology of the Central Nervous System.

This article reviews the rapidly evolving spectrum of autoimmune neurologic disorders with a focus on those that involve the central nervous system, providing an understanding of how to approach the diagnostic workup of patients presenting with central nervous system symptoms or signs that could be immune mediated, either paraneoplastic or idiopathic, to guide therapeutic decision making.

Ground plan of the larval nervous system in phoronids: Evidence from larvae of viviparous phoronid.

Nervous system organization differs greatly in larvae and adults of many species, but has nevertheless been traditionally used for phylogenetic studies. In phoronids, the organization of the larval nervous system depends on the type of development. With the goal of understanding the ground plan of the nervous system in phoronid larvae, the development and organization of the larval nervous system were studied in a viviparous phoronid species. The ground plan of the phoronid larval nervous system includes an...

Altitude exposure and increased heart rate: the role of the parasympathetic nervous system.

Elevated heart rate (HR) has been demonstrated in response to acute hypoxia exposure, which is reportedly due to sympathetic nervous system activation (SNS) and concurrent withdrawal of parasympathetic nervous system activity (PSNS). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Epigenetic Regulation of Axon Regeneration after Neural Injury.

When peripheral axons are damaged, neuronal injury signaling pathways induce transcriptional changes that support axon regeneration and consequent functional recovery. The recent development of bioinformatics techniques has allowed for the identification of many of the regeneration-associated genes that are regulated by neural injury, yet it remains unclear how global changes in transcriptome are coordinated. In this article, we review recent studies on the epigenetic mechanisms orchestrating changes in gen...

Characterisation of Immune and Neuroinflammatory Changes Associated with Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) and associated neuropathic pain is a debilitating adverse effect of cancer treatment. Current understanding of the mechanisms underpinning CIPN is limited and there are no effective treatment strategies. In this study, we treated male C57BL/6J mice with 4 cycles of either Paclitaxel (PTX) or Oxaliplatin (OXA) over a week and tested pain hypersensitivity and changes in peripheral immune responses and neuroinflammation on days 7 and 13 post 1st injection. We f...

Enteric glia regulate gut motility in health and disease.

The enteric nervous system, often referred to as the second brain, is the largest assembly of neurons and glia outside the central nervous system. The enteric nervous system resides within the wall of the digestive tract and regulates local gut reflexes involved in gastrointestinal motility, blood flow and fluid transport; all these functions can be accomplished in the absence of the extrinsic innervation from the central nervous system. It is neurons and their circuitry within the enteric nervous system th...

Nonsurgical Laser Treatment (NSLT) of Central and Peripheral Nervous System Injuries.

The Molecular and Morphologic Structures That Make Saltatory Conduction Possible in Peripheral Nerve.

Saltatory conduction is the process by which action potentials are rapidly and efficiently propagated along myelinated axons. In the peripheral nervous system, saltatory conduction is made possible by a series of morphologically and molecularly distinct subdomains in both axons and their associated myelinating Schwann cells. This review briefly summarizes current knowledge on the molecular structure and physiology of the node of Ranvier and adjacent regions of the axoglial unit in peripheral nerve.

Spatial distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in normal canine central and peripheral nervous system.

The endocannabinoid system is a regulatory pathway consisting of two main types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids. The CB1 receptor is highly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems (PNS) in mammalians and is involved in neuromodulatory functions. Since endocannabinoids were shown to be elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of epileptic dogs, knowledge about the species specific CB receptor expression in the nervous system is required. Theref...

An Intrinsic Epigenetic Barrier for Functional Axon Regeneration.

Mature neurons in the adult peripheral nervous system can effectively switch from a dormant state with little axonal growth to robust axon regeneration upon injury. The mechanisms by which injury unlocks mature neurons' intrinsic axonal growth competence are not well understood. Here, we show that peripheral sciatic nerve lesion in adult mice leads to elevated levels of Tet3 and 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Functionally, Tet3 is required for robust axon regeneration of DRG...

Autonomic nervous system in newborns: a review based on heart rate variability.

Heart rate variability (HRV) has been a relevant tool in the assessment of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). How autonomic control normally develops in newborns and how it is affected by gestational age (GA) is not fully understood. We aimed to review the current evidence on HRV in preterm (PT) and term neonates (TN) and investigate the relation between GA and the maturation of ANS.

A de novo dominant mutation in KIF1A associated with axonal neuropathy, spasticity and autism spectrum disorder.

Mutations in the kinesin family member 1A (KIF1A) gene have been associated with a wide range of phenotypes including recessive mutations causing hereditary sensory neuropathy and hereditary spastic paraplegia and de novo dominant mutations causing a more complex neurological disorder affecting both the central and peripheral nervous system. We identified by exome sequencing a de novo dominant missense variant, (c.38G>A, p.R13H), within an ATP binding site of the kinesin motor domain in a patient manifestin...

Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system.

The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CN...

Deficiency of a membrane skeletal protein, 4.1G, results in myelin abnormalities in the peripheral nervous system.

We previously demonstrated that a membrane skeletal molecular complex, 4.1G-membrane palmitoylated protein 6 (MPP6)-cell adhesion molecule 4, is incorporated in Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In this study, we evaluated motor activity and myelin ultrastructures in 4.1G-deficient (-/-) mice. When suspended by the tail, aged 4.1G(-/-) mice displayed spastic leg extension, especially after overwork. Motor-conduction velocity in 4.1G(-/-) mice was slower than that in wild-type mice. Using...

Origins of Pupillary Hippus in the Autonomic Nervous System.

The purpose of this study was to determine the relative roles of the sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) in pupillary hippus.


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