PubMed Journals Articles About "General Stress Sigma Factor RpoS Influences Time Required" RSS

19:13 EST 26th November 2014 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "General stress sigma factor RpoS influences time required" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 46,000+

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Coordinated regulation of the extracytoplasmic stress factor, sigmaE, with other Escherichia coli sigma factors by (p)ppGpp and DksA may be achieved by specific regulation of individual holoenzymes.

The E. coli alternative sigma factor, σ(E) , transcribes genes required to maintain the cell envelope and is activated by conditions that destabilize the envelope. σ(E) is also activated during entry into stationary phase in the absence of envelope stress by the alarmone (p)ppGpp. (p)ppGpp controls a large regulatory network, reducing expression of σ(70) -dependent genes required for rapid growth and activating σ(70) -dependent and alternative sigma factor-dependent genes required for stress survival. T...

Haemophilus ducreyi Hfq Contributes to Virulence Gene Regulation as Cells Enter Stationary Phase.

ABSTRACT To adapt to stresses encountered in stationary phase, Gram-negative bacteria utilize the alternative sigma factor RpoS. However, some species lack RpoS; thus, it is unclear how stationary-phase adaptation is regulated in these organisms. Here we defined the growth-phase-dependent transcriptomes of Haemophilus ducreyi, which lacks an RpoS homolog. Compared to mid-log-phase organisms, cells harvested from the stationary phase upregulated genes encoding several virulence determinants and a homolog of ...

Transcriptional occlusion caused by overlapping promoters.

RpoS (σ(38)) is required for cell survival under stress conditions, but it can inhibit growth if produced inappropriately and, consequently, its production and activity are elaborately regulated. Crl, a transcriptional activator that does not bind DNA, enhances RpoS activity by stimulating the interaction between RpoS and the core polymerase. The crl gene has two overlapping promoters, a housekeeping, RpoD- (σ(70)) dependent promoter, and an RpoN (σ(54)) promoter that is strongly up-regulated under nitro...

A Model for Sigma Factor Competition in Bacterial Cells.

Sigma factors control global switches of the genetic expression program in bacteria. Different sigma factors compete for binding to a limited pool of RNA polymerase (RNAP) core enzymes, providing a mechanism for cross-talk between genes or gene classes via the sharing of expression machinery. To analyze the contribution of sigma factor competition to global changes in gene expression, we develop a theoretical model that describes binding between sigma factors and core RNAP, transcription, non-specific bindi...

Proteasome involvement in a complex cascade mediating SigT degradation during differentiation of Streptomyces coelicolor.

In Streptomyces coelicolor, the ECF sigma factor SigT negatively regulates cell differentiation, and is degraded by ClpP protease in a dual positive feedback manner. Here we further report that the proteasome is required for degradation of SigT, but not for degradation of its anti-sigma factor RstA, and RstA can protect SigT from degradation independent of the proteasome. Meanwhile, deletion of the proteasome showed reduced production of secondary metabolites, and the fermentation medium from wild type coul...

Small RNAs in the control of RpoS, CsgD, and biofilm architecture of Escherichia coli.

Amyloid curli fibers and cellulose are extracellular matrix components produced in the stationary phase top layer of E. coli macrocolonies, which confer physical protection, strong cohesion, elasticity, and wrinkled morphology to these biofilms. Curli and cellulose synthesis is controlled by a three-level transcription factor (TF) cascade with the RpoS sigma subunit of RNA polymerase at the top, the MerR-like TF MlrA, and the biofilm regulator CsgD, with two c-di-GMP control modules acting as key switching ...

Fluvoxamine alleviates ER stress via induction of Sigma-1 receptor.

We recently demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) expression through the PERK pathway, which is one of the cell's responses to ER stress. In addition, it has been demonstrated that induction of Sig-1R can repress cell death signaling. Fluvoxamine (Flv) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with a high affinity for Sig-1R. In the present study, we show that treatment of neuroblastoma cells with Flv induces Sig-1R expression by increasing ATF4 trans...

Membrane lipid composition and stress/virulence related gene expression of Salmonella Enteritidis cells adapted to lactic acid and trisodium phosphate and their resistance to lethal heat and acid stress.

This study evaluated the acid and heat resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis in simulated gastric fluid (pH2.0) and during thermal treatment (54-60°C), respectively, after adaptation to lactic acid (LA) or trisodium phosphate (TSP) at various pHs (pH5.3-9.0). The changes in membrane lipid composition and expression levels of RpoS and RpoH were examined to elucidate their roles in bacterial stress resistance. Transcriptional profile of several virulence-related genes was also analyzed. Results showed that LA...

Bacterial sigma factors as targets for engineered or synthetic transcriptional control.

Sigma (σ) factors are the predominant constituents of transcription regulation in bacteria. σ Factors recruit the core RNA polymerase to recognize promoters with specific DNA sequences. Recently, engineering of transcriptional regulators has become a significant tool for strain engineering. The present review summarizes the recent advances in σ factor based engineering or synthetic design. The manipulation of σ factors presents insights into the bacterial stress tolerance and metabolite productivity. We...

Knock-out of extracytoplasmic function sigma factor ECF-10 affects stress resistance and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

Pseudomonas putida is a Gram-negative soil bacterium which is well-known for its versatile lifestyle controlled by a large repertoire of transcriptional regulators. Besides one- and two-component regulatory systems, the genome of P. putida reveals 19 extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors involved in the adaptation to changing environmental conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that knock-out of extracytoplasmic function sigma factor ECF-10 encoded by open reading frame PP4553 resulted in 2- to 4...

Relevant

Sigma receptors as potential therapeutic targets for neuroprotection.

Sigma receptors comprise a unique family of proteins that have been implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of many central nervous system disorders, consistent with their high level of expression in the brain and spinal cord. Mounting evidence indicate that targeting sigma receptors may be particularly beneficial in a number of neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, methamphetamine neurotoxicity, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ...

Nuclear receptor LRH-1/NR5A2 is required and targetable for liver endoplasmic reticulum stress resolution.

Chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress results in toxicity that contributes to multiple human disorders. We report a stress resolution pathway initiated by the nuclear receptor LRH-1 that is independent of known unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways. Like mice lacking primary UPR components, hepatic Lrh-1-null mice cannot resolve ER stress, despite a functional UPR. In response to ER stress, LRH-1 induces expression of the kinase Plk3, which phosphorylates and activates the transcription factor ATF2. ...

A systems approach identifies co-signaling molecules of early growth response 1 transcription factor in immobilization stress.

BackgroundAdaptation to stress is critical for survival. The adrenal medulla, the major source of epinephrine, plays an important role in the development of the hyperadenergic state and increased risk for stress associated disorders, such as hypertension and myocardial infarction. The transcription factor Egr1 plays a central role in acute and repeated stress, however the complexity of the response suggests that other transcription factor pathways might be playing equally important roles during acute and re...

USP17 is required for clathrin mediated endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor.

Previously we have shown that expression of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP17 is required for cell proliferation and motility. More recently we reported that USP17 deubiquitinates RCE1 isoform 2 and thus regulates the processing of 'CaaX' motif proteins. Here we now show that USP17 expression is induced by epidermal growth factor and that USP17 expression is required for clathrin mediated endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor. In addition, we show that USP17 is required for the endocytosis of tran...

Dose-dependent sigma-1 receptor occupancy by donepezil in rat brain can be assessed with (11)C-SA4503 and microPET.

Sigma-1 receptor agonists are under investigation as potential disease-modifying agents for several CNS disorders. Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease, is also a high-affinity sigma-1 agonist.

Postoperative delirium is an independent risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder in the elderly patient: A prospective observational study.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may appear after hospitalisation for surgery with general anaesthesia in elderly patients. Prevalence and risk factors in this setting are unknown. Postoperative delirium could be a risk factor.

Quantitative application of sigma metrics in medical biochemistry.

Introduction: Laboratory errors are result of a poorly designed quality system in the laboratory. Six Sigma is an error reduction methodology that has been successfully applied at Motorola and General Electric. Sigma (σ) is the mathematical symbol for standard deviation (SD). Sigma methodology can be applied wherever an outcome of a process has to be measured. A poor outcome is counted as an error or defect. This is quantified as defects per million (DPM). A six sigma process is one in which 99.999666% of ...

Genetic and environmental influences on the allocation of adolescent leisure time activities.

There is a growing recognition of the importance of the out-of-school activities in which adolescents choose to participate. Youth activities vary widely in terms of specific activities and in time devoted to them but can generally be grouped by the type and total duration spent per type. We collected leisure time information using a 17-item leisure time questionnaire in a large sample of same- and opposite-sex adolescent twin pairs (N = 2847). Using both univariate and multivariate genetic models, we sough...

Support for the Multidimensional Adolescent Stress Questionnaire in a Sample of Adolescents in the United Kingdom.

Adolescence is a time of physical, social and emotional development, and this development can be accompanied by feelings of stress. The Adolescent Stress Questionnaire is a 56-item scale measuring stress in 10 domains. Developed in Australia, the scale has been translated, and its reliability and validity have been tested in a number of countries across Europe, where the 10-factor, 56-item version of the scale has received little support. The present study tested the factor structure, construct validity and...

rpoS regulated core genes involved in the competitive fitness of Salmonella enterica Kentucky in the chicken intestine.

Salmonella Kentucky has become the most frequently isolated serovar from poultry in the United States over the past decade. Despite its prevalence in poultry, it causes few human illnesses in the U.S. The dominance of S. Kentucky in poultry does not appear to be due to single introduction of a clonal strain; and its reduced virulence appears to correlate with the absence of virulence genes grvA, sseI, sopE, and sodC1. S. Kentucky's prevalence in poultry is possibly attributed to its metabolic adaptation to ...

Structured Syncope Care Pathways Based on Lean Six Sigma Methodology Optimises Resource Use with Shorter Time to Diagnosis and Increased Diagnostic Yield.

To conduct a pilot study on the potential to optimise care pathways in syncope/Transient Loss of Consciousness management by using Lean Six Sigma methodology while maintaining compliance with ESC and/or NICE guidelines.

Interaction of Stress, Corticotropin-Releasing Factor, Arginine Vasopressin and Behaviour.

Stress Stress mediates the activation of a variety of systems ranging from inflammatory to behavioral responses. In this review we focus on two neuropeptide systems, corticotropin-releasing factor corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginine vasopressin arginine vasopressin (AVP), and their roles in regulating stress stress responses. Both peptides have been demonstrated to be involved in anxiogenic and depressive effects, actions mediated in part through their regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-...

Potential Applications for Sigma Receptor Ligands in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy.

Sigma receptors (sigma-1 and sigma-2) represent two independent classes of proteins with a unique pharmacological profile. Their endogenous ligands may include the hallucinogen N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and sphingolipid-derived amines which interact with sigma-1 receptors, besides steroid hormones such as progesterone which bind to both sigma receptor subpopulations. The sigma-1 receptor gene has been cloned. Its product is a ligand-regulated molecular chaperone with various ion channels and G-protein-co...

SREBP-1 Mediates Angiotensin II-Induced TGF-β1 Upregulation and Glomerular Fibrosis.

Angiotensin II is an important mediator of CKD of diverse etiology. A common pathologic feature of CKD is glomerular fibrosis, a central mediator of which is the profibrotic cytokine TGF-β. The mechanisms underlying the induction of TGF-β and matrix by angiotensin II are not completely understood. Recent studies showed that overexpression of the transcription factor SREBP-1 induces glomerular sclerosis and that angiotensin II can activate SREBP-1 in tubular cells. We thus studied whether SREBP-1 is activa...

Sigma-1 receptor inhibition reverses acute inflammatory hyperalgesia in mice: role of peripheral sigma-1 receptors.

Sigma-1 (σ1) receptor inhibition ameliorates neuropathic pain by inhibiting central sensitization. However, it is unknown whether σ1 receptor inhibition also decreases inflammatory hyperalgesia, or whether peripheral σ1 receptors are involved in this process.


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