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Showing "General stress sigma factor RpoS influences time required" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 45,000+

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Bacterial Sigma Factors and Anti-Sigma Factors: Structure, Function and Distribution.

Sigma factors are multi-domain subunits of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) that play critical roles in transcription initiation, including the recognition and opening of promoters as well as the initial steps in RNA synthesis. This review focuses on the structure and function of the major sigma-70 class that includes the housekeeping sigma factor (Group 1) that directs the bulk of transcription during active growth, and structurally-related alternative sigma factors (Groups 2-4) that control a wide variety ...

Effect of Global Regulators RpoS and Cyclic-AMP/CRP on the Catabolome and Transcriptome of Escherichia coli K12 during Carbon- and Energy-Limited Growth.

For heterotrophic microbes, limited availability of carbon and energy sources is one of the major nutritional factors restricting the rate of growth in most ecosystems. Physiological adaptation to this hunger state requires metabolic versatility which usually involves expression of a wide range of different catabolic pathways and of high-affinity carbon transporters; together, this allows for simultaneous utilization of mixtures of carbonaceous compounds at low concentrations. In Escherichia coli the statio...

Polyamines stimulate the level of the σ38 subunit (RpoS) of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase resulting in the induction of the glutamate decarboxylase dependent acid response system via the gadE regulon.

To study the physiological roles of polyamines, we have carried out a global microarray analysis on the effect of adding polyamines to an Escherichia coli mutant that lacks polyamines because of deletions in the genes in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. Previously, we have reported that the earliest response to polyamine addition is the increased expression of the genes for the glutamate dependent acid resistance system (GDAR). We also presented preliminary evidence for the involvement of rpoS and gadE r...

Resonance assignments of the periplasmic domain of a cellulose-sensing trans-membrane anti-sigma factor from Clostridium thermocellum.

The cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum is an elegant and efficient multi-enzyme complex for degrading lignocellulose. The cellulosome contains several dozens of carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes, which are regulated by the presence of environmental substrates through several pairs of sigma and anti-sigma factors. The anti-sigma factors sense the presence of substrates and transduce the signals into the cell. The sigma factors are then released from the corresponding anti-sigma factors, and they recruit R...

Validation of the role of rpoS, hmp, and ssrAB in Salmonella enterica Gallinarum and evaluation of a triple-deletion mutant as a live vaccine candidate in Lohmann layer chickens.

Salmonella enterica Gallinarum (SG) causes fowl typhoid, a septicemic disease in avian species. We constructed deletion mutants lacking the stress sigma factor RpoS, the nitric oxide (NO)-detoxifying flavohemoglobin Hmp, and the SsrA/SsrB regulator, to confirm the functions of these genes in SG. Wild-type (WT) SG showed the full function of each gene product, whereas mutants harboring single mutations or a combination of rpoS, hmp, and ssrAB mutations showed hypersusceptibility to H2O2, loss of NO metabolis...

Indirect positive effects of a sigma factor RpoN deletion on the lactate-based polymer production in Escherichia coli.

The production of bacterial polyesters, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), has been improved by several rational approaches such as overexpression and/or engineering of the enzymes directly related to PHA biosynthetic pathways. In this study, a new approach at transcription level has been applied to a new category of the copolymer of lactate (LA) and 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), P(LA-co-3HB). When the four disrupting mutants of sigma factors in Escherichia coli, rpoN, rpoS, fliA, fecI, were used as platforms for pro...

Transcriptional and Post-Transcriptional Modulation of SPI1 and SPI2 Expression by ppGpp, RpoS and DksA in Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium.

The expression of genes within Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands 1 and 2 (SPI1, SPI2) is required to facilitate invasion and intracellular replication respectively of S. Typhimurium in host cell lines. Control of their expression is complex and occurs via a variety of factors operating at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in response to the environmental stimuli found within the host. Several of the factors that modulate SPI1 and SPI2 expression are involved in the redistribution or modificatio...

Processing of Cell-Surface Signalling anti-sigma factors prior to signal recognition is a conserved autoproteolytic mechanism that produces two functional domains.

Cell-Surface Signalling (CSS) enables Gram-negative bacteria to transduce an environmental signal into a cytosolic response. This regulatory cascade involves an outer membrane receptor that transmits the signal to an anti-sigma factor in the cytoplasmic membrane, allowing the activation of an extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor. Recent studies have demonstrated that RseP-mediated proteolysis of the anti-sigma factors is key to σ(ECF) activation. Using the Pseudomonas aeruginosa FoxR anti-sigma fac...

NHEJ enzymes LigD and Ku participate in stationary-phase mutagenesis in Pseudomonas putida.

Under growth-restricting conditions bacterial populations can rapidly evolve by a process known as stationary-phase mutagenesis. Bacterial nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) system which consists of the DNA-end-binding enzyme Ku and the multifunctional DNA ligase LigD has been shown to be important for survival of bacteria especially during quiescent states, such as late stationary-phase populations or sporulation. In this study we provide genetic evidence that NHEJ enzymes participate in stationary-phase mut...

Structure of the RsbX phosphatase involved in the general stress response of Bacillus subtilis.

In the general stress response of Bacillus subtilis, which is governed by the sigma factor σ(B), stress signalling is relayed by a cascade of Rsb proteins that regulate σ(B) activity. RsbX, a PPM II phosphatase, halts the response by dephosphorylating the stressosome composed of RsbR and RsbS. The crystal structure of RsbX reveals a reorganization of the catalytic centre, with the second Mn(2+) ion uniquely coordinated by Gly47 O from the β4-α1 loop instead of a water molecule as in PPM I phosphatases...

Global analysis of Salmonella alternative sigma factor E on protein translation.

The alternative sigma factor E (E) is critical for response to extracytoplasmic stress in Salmonella. Extensive studies have been conducted on E-regulated gene expression, particularly at the transcriptional level. Increasing evidence suggests however that E may indirectly participate in post-transcriptional regulation. In this study, we conducted sample-matched global proteomic and transcriptomic analyses to determine the level of regulation mediated by E in Salmonella. Samples were analyzed fr...

Experimentally induced stress decreases ideal female reproductive timing.

Previous correlational research shows that childhood adversity is associated with earlier age of reproduction in humans and other species. Such studies, however, cannot show that stressful conditions cause earlier reproduction. Using the cold-pressor task, we built on previous work to test the idea that acute stress influences human reproductive and marital ideals, and that individual stress responses depend on adaptive life history strategies shaped by exposure to adversity during childhood. Acute stress s...

Mechanistic implications of the unique structural features and dimerization of the cytoplasmic domain of the Pseudomonas sigma regulator, PupR.

Gram-negative bacteria tightly regulate intracellular levels of iron, an essential nutrient. To ensure this tight regulation, some outer membrane TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs) that are responsible for iron import stimulate their own transcription in response to extracellular binding by an iron-laden siderophore. This process is mediated by an inner membrane sigma regulator protein (an anti-sigma factor) that transduces an unknown periplasmic signal from the TBDT to release an intracellular sigma facto...

Different perceptions of stress, coping styles, and general well-being among pregnant Chinese women: a structural equation modeling approach.

Few studies have examined different perceptions of stress or explored the positive aspects of well-being among pregnant Chinese women, so there is a need to explore these phenomena in order to fill the research gap. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among the different perceptions of stress, coping styles, and general well-being using a structural equation modeling approach. We examined a hypothetical model among 755 pregnant Chinese women based on the integration of theoretical models....

Racial/ethnic discrimination, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol problems in a longitudinal study of Hispanic/Latino college students.

Racial/ethnic discrimination has been identified as a risk factor in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in persons of color (Carter, 2007). Many persons, regardless of race/ethnicity, with PTSD symptoms resulting from combat, violent crimes, sexual assault, or natural disasters use alcohol in an attempt to cope. This longitudinal study surveyed 203 Hispanic/Latino students twice at approximately a 1-year interval, and used a cross-lagged design to compare Time 1 links from alco...

Role of extracytoplasmic function sigma factors in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as a major pathogen in the development and progression of chronic periodontitis. P. gingivalis biofilm formation in the subgingival crevice plays an important role in the ability of the bacteria to tolerate stress signals outside the cytoplasmic membrane. Some bacteria use a distinct subfamily of sigma factors to regulate their extracytoplasmic functions (the ECF subfamily). The objective of this study was to determine if P. gingivalis ECF sigma factors affect P....

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Two stress sensor proteins for the expression of sigmaE regulon: DegS and RseB.

In E. coli, sigmaE-dependent transcription is controlled by regulated-proteolysis of RseA. RseA, which holds sigmaE as an anti-sigma factor, is sequentially digested by DegS, RseP and cytoplasmic proteases to liberate sigmaE in response to dysfunction in outer-membrane biogenesis. Additionally, the sequential proteolysis is regulated by RseB binding to RseA (Fig. 1A). Direct interaction between RseA and RseB inhibits RseA-cleavage by DegS. Both proteolytic activation of DegS and binding disruption of RseB a...

Plastid sigma factors: Their individual functions and regulation in transcription.

Sigma factors are the predominant factors involved in transcription regulation in bacteria. These factors can recruit the core RNA polymerase to promoters with specific DNA sequences and initiate gene transcription. The plastids of higher plants originating from an ancestral cyanobacterial endosymbiont also contain sigma factors that are encoded by a small family of nuclear genes. Although all plastid sigma factors contain sequences conserved in bacterial sigma factors, a considerable number of distinct tra...

Decoding genome-wide GadEWX-transcriptional regulatory networks reveals multifaceted cellular responses to acid stress in Escherichia coli.

The regulators GadE, GadW and GadX (which we refer to as GadEWX) play a critical role in the transcriptional regulation of the glutamate-dependent acid resistance (GDAR) system in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655. However, the genome-wide regulatory role of GadEWX is still unknown. Here we comprehensively reconstruct the genome-wide GadEWX transcriptional regulatory network and RpoS involvement in E. coli K-12 MG1655 under acidic stress. Integrative data analysis reveals that GadEWX regulons consist of 45 genes...

Laboratory measurements of the oral direct factor xa inhibitor edoxaban: comparison of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and thrombin generation assay.

Edoxaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, does not require routine monitoring. However, assessment of the anticoagulant effects may be required in certain situations.

The Rsb Phosphoregulatory Network Controls Availability of the Primary Sigma Factor in Chlamydia trachomatis and Influences the Kinetics of Growth and Development.

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen that exhibits stage-specific gene transcription throughout a biphasic developmental cycle. The mechanisms that control modulation in transcription and associated phenotypic changes are poorly understood. This study provides evidence that a switch-protein kinase regulatory network controls availability of σ66, the main sigma subunit for transcription in Chlamydia. In vitro analysis revealed that a putative switch-protein kinase regulator, Rsb...

Effects of Psychological Stress on Hypertension in Middle-Aged Chinese: A Cross-Sectional Study.

We examined the effect and relative contributions of different types of stress on the risk of hypertension. Using cluster sampling, 5,976 community-dwelling individuals aged 40-60 were selected. Hypertension was defined according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee, and general psychological stress was defined as experiencing stress at work or home. Information on known risk factors of hypertension (e.g., physical activity levels, food intake, smoking behavior) was collected from participa...

From retrograde signaling to flowering time.

Plant's transition from vegetative to reproductive phase is balanced by intricate cascade of genes regulated by both endogenous and environmental inputs. Stress causes suppression of vegetative growth and acceleration of flowering as an emergency response for preservation of the species. Recently, we determined that expression levels of a transcription factor with 2 B-Box motifs, BBX19, is notably reduced in response to accumulation of high levels of Methylerythritol cyclodiphosphate (MEcPP), a plastidial p...

Job characteristics: their relationship to job satisfaction, stress and depression.

This study investigated the influences of job characteristics on job satisfaction, stress and depression among South African white collar workers. Participants were managers in full-time employment with large organisations. They completed the Job Diagnostic Survey, the Perceived Stress Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. A regression approach was used to predict job satisfaction, stress and depression from job characteristics. Job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autono...

RpoS and quorum sensing control expression and polar localization of Vibrio cholerae chemotaxis cluster III proteins in vitro and in vivo.

The diarrheal pathogen Vibrio cholerae contains 3 gene clusters that encode chemotaxis-related proteins, but only cluster II appears to be required for chemotaxis. Here, we present the first characterization of V. cholerae's "cluster III" chemotaxis system. We found that cluster III proteins assemble into foci at bacterial poles, like those formed by cluster II proteins, but the two systems assemble independently and do not colocalize. Cluster III proteins are expressed in vitro during stationary phase and ...



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