PubMed Journals Articles About "General Stress Sigma Factor RpoS Influences Time Required" RSS

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Showing "General stress sigma factor RpoS influences time required" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 46,000+

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Coordinated regulation of the extracytoplasmic stress factor, sigmaE, with other Escherichia coli sigma factors by (p)ppGpp and DksA may be achieved by specific regulation of individual holoenzymes.

The E. coli alternative sigma factor, σ(E) , transcribes genes required to maintain the cell envelope and is activated by conditions that destabilize the envelope. σ(E) is also activated during entry into stationary phase in the absence of envelope stress by the alarmone (p)ppGpp. (p)ppGpp controls a large regulatory network, reducing expression of σ(70) -dependent genes required for rapid growth and activating σ(70) -dependent and alternative sigma factor-dependent genes required for stress survival. T...

The LuxR-type regulator VpsT negatively controls the transcription of rpoS encoding the general stress response regulator in Vibrio cholerae biofilms.

Cholera is a waterborne diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae of serogroups O1 and O139. Expression of the general stress response regulator RpoS and formation of biofilm communities enhance the capacity of V. cholerae to persist in the aquatic environment. Transition of V. cholerae between free-swimming (planktonic) and biofilm lifestyles is regulated by the second messenger cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP). We previously reported that increasing the c-di-GMP pool by over expression of a diguanylate...

Haemophilus ducreyi Hfq Contributes to Virulence Gene Regulation as Cells Enter Stationary Phase.

ABSTRACT To adapt to stresses encountered in stationary phase, Gram-negative bacteria utilize the alternative sigma factor RpoS. However, some species lack RpoS; thus, it is unclear how stationary-phase adaptation is regulated in these organisms. Here we defined the growth-phase-dependent transcriptomes of Haemophilus ducreyi, which lacks an RpoS homolog. Compared to mid-log-phase organisms, cells harvested from the stationary phase upregulated genes encoding several virulence determinants and a homolog of...

A small heat shock protein (Hsp20) regulated by RpoS is essential for cyst desiccation resistance in Azotobacter vinelandii.

In Azotobacter vinelandii, a cyst forming bacterium, the alternative sigma factor RpoS is essential to form cysts resistant to desiccation and to synthesize the cyst specific lipids alkylresorcinols. In this study, we carried out a proteome analysis of vegetative cells and cysts of A. vinelandii strain AEIV and its rpoS mutant derivative AErpoS. This analysis allowed us to identify a small heat shock protein, Hsp20, as one of the most abundant proteins of the cyst regulated by RpoS. Inactivation of hsp20 di...

Transcriptional occlusion caused by overlapping promoters.

RpoS (σ(38)) is required for cell survival under stress conditions, but it can inhibit growth if produced inappropriately and, consequently, its production and activity are elaborately regulated. Crl, a transcriptional activator that does not bind DNA, enhances RpoS activity by stimulating the interaction between RpoS and the core polymerase. The crl gene has two overlapping promoters, a housekeeping, RpoD- (σ(70)) dependent promoter, and an RpoN (σ(54)) promoter that is strongly up-regulated under nitro...

Anti-adaptors provide multiple modes for regulation of the RssB adaptor protein.

RpoS, an RNA polymerase σ factor, controls the response of Escherichia coli and related bacteria to multiple stress responses. During nonstress conditions, RpoS is rapidly degraded by ClpXP, mediated by the adaptor protein RssB, a member of the response regulator family. In response to stress, RpoS degradation ceases. Small anti-adaptor proteins-IraP, IraM, and IraD, each made under a different stress condition-block RpoS degradation. RssB mutants resistant to either IraP or IraM were isolated and analyzed...

Proteasome involvement in a complex cascade mediating SigT degradation during differentiation of Streptomyces coelicolor.

In Streptomyces coelicolor, the ECF sigma factor SigT negatively regulates cell differentiation, and is degraded by ClpP protease in a dual positive feedback manner. Here we further report that the proteasome is required for degradation of SigT, but not for degradation of its anti-sigma factor RstA, and RstA can protect SigT from degradation independent of the proteasome. Meanwhile, deletion of the proteasome showed reduced production of secondary metabolites, and the fermentation medium from wild type coul...

Small RNAs in the control of RpoS, CsgD, and biofilm architecture of Escherichia coli.

Amyloid curli fibers and cellulose are extracellular matrix components produced in the stationary phase top layer of E. coli macrocolonies, which confer physical protection, strong cohesion, elasticity, and wrinkled morphology to these biofilms. Curli and cellulose synthesis is controlled by a three-level transcription factor (TF) cascade with the RpoS sigma subunit of RNA polymerase at the top, the MerR-like TF MlrA, and the biofilm regulator CsgD, with two c-di-GMP control modules acting as key switching...

Fluvoxamine alleviates ER stress via induction of Sigma-1 receptor.

We recently demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) expression through the PERK pathway, which is one of the cell's responses to ER stress. In addition, it has been demonstrated that induction of Sig-1R can repress cell death signaling. Fluvoxamine (Flv) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with a high affinity for Sig-1R. In the present study, we show that treatment of neuroblastoma cells with Flv induces Sig-1R expression by increasing ATF4 trans...

Macromolecular structure and interaction studies of SigF and Usfx in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an intracellular human parasite that causes tuberculosis (TB). The parasite is capable of surviving under stress conditions. The gene expression in Mtb is regulated by sigma factor family of proteins. The SigF protein belongs to the sigma factor family, expressed during stationary and growth phase, 14 genes are directly regulated by SigF and has a role in the expression of the principal sigma factor SigB as well. The interacting partner Usfx, the anti SigF protei...

Increasing RpoS Expression Causes Cell Death inBorrelia burgdorferi.

RpoS, one of the two alternative σ factors in Borrelia burgdorferi, is tightly controlled by multiple regulators and, in turn, determines expression of many critical virulence factors. Here we show that increasing RpoS expression causes cell death. The immediate effect of increasing RpoS expression was to promote bacterial division and as a consequence result in a rapid increase in cell number before causing bacterial death. No DNA fragmentation or degradation was observed during this induced cell death. C...

A Novel Role for an ECF Sigma Factor in Fatty Acid Biosynthesis and Membrane Fluidity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors are members of cell-surface signaling systems, abundant in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Twenty genes coding for ECF sigma factors are present in P. aeruginosa sequenced genomes, most of them being part of TonB systems related to iron uptake. In this work, poorly characterized sigma factors were overexpressed in strain PA14, in an attempt to understand their role in the bacterium´s physiology. Cultures overexpressing SigX displayed a biphas...

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Knock-out of extracytoplasmic function sigma factor ECF-10 affects stress resistance and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

Pseudomonas putida is a Gram-negative soil bacterium which is well-known for its versatile lifestyle controlled by a large repertoire of transcriptional regulators. Besides one- and two-component regulatory systems, the genome of P. putida reveals 19 extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors involved in the adaptation to changing environmental conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that knock-out of extracytoplasmic function sigma factor ECF-10 encoded by open reading frame PP4553 resulted in 2- to 4...

Common genetic influences on negative emotionality and a general psychopathology factor in childhood and adolescence.

Previous research using confirmatory factor analysis to model psychopathology comorbidity has supported the hypothesis of a broad general factor (i.e., a "bifactor"; Holzinger & Swineford, 1937) of psychopathology in children, adolescents, and adults, with more specific higher order internalizing and externalizing factors reflecting additional shared variance in symptoms (Lahey et al., 2012; Lahey, van Hulle, Singh, Waldman, & Rathouz, 2011). The psychological nature of this general factor has not been expl...

Nuclear receptor LRH-1/NR5A2 is required and targetable for liver endoplasmic reticulum stress resolution.

Chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress results in toxicity that contributes to multiple human disorders. We report a stress resolution pathway initiated by the nuclear receptor LRH-1 that is independent of known unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways. Like mice lacking primary UPR components, hepatic Lrh-1-null mice cannot resolve ER stress, despite a functional UPR. In response to ER stress, LRH-1 induces expression of the kinase Plk3, which phosphorylates and activates the transcription factor ATF2....

USP17 is required for clathrin mediated endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor.

Previously we have shown that expression of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP17 is required for cell proliferation and motility. More recently we reported that USP17 deubiquitinates RCE1 isoform 2 and thus regulates the processing of 'CaaX' motif proteins. Here we now show that USP17 expression is induced by epidermal growth factor and that USP17 expression is required for clathrin mediated endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor. In addition, we show that USP17 is required for the endocytosis of tran...

Dose-dependent sigma-1 receptor occupancy by donepezil in rat brain can be assessed with (11)C-SA4503 and microPET.

Sigma-1 receptor agonists are under investigation as potential disease-modifying agents for several CNS disorders. Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease, is also a high-affinity sigma-1 agonist.

Determinants of patient waiting time in the general outpatient department of a tertiary health institution in north Western Nigeria.

The amount of time a patient waits to be seen is one factor which affects utilization of healthcare services. Patients perceive long waiting times as barrier to actually obtaining services and keeping patients waiting unnecessarily can be a cause of stress for both patient and doctor.

Postoperative delirium is an independent risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder in the elderly patient: A prospective observational study.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may appear after hospitalisation for surgery with general anaesthesia in elderly patients. Prevalence and risk factors in this setting are unknown. Postoperative delirium could be a risk factor.

Quantitative application of sigma metrics in medical biochemistry.

Introduction: Laboratory errors are result of a poorly designed quality system in the laboratory. Six Sigma is an error reduction methodology that has been successfully applied at Motorola and General Electric. Sigma (σ) is the mathematical symbol for standard deviation (SD). Sigma methodology can be applied wherever an outcome of a process has to be measured. A poor outcome is counted as an error or defect. This is quantified as defects per million (DPM). A six sigma process is one in which 99.999666% of...

Genetic and environmental influences on the allocation of adolescent leisure time activities.

There is a growing recognition of the importance of the out-of-school activities in which adolescents choose to participate. Youth activities vary widely in terms of specific activities and in time devoted to them but can generally be grouped by the type and total duration spent per type. We collected leisure time information using a 17-item leisure time questionnaire in a large sample of same- and opposite-sex adolescent twin pairs (N = 2847). Using both univariate and multivariate genetic models, we sough...

Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Biofilm Forming Capabilities in Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains.

The biofilm life style helps bacteria resist oxidative stress, desiccation, antibiotic treatment, and starvation. Biofilm formation involves a complex regulatory gene network controlled by various environmental signals. It was previously shown that prophage insertions in mlrA and heterogeneous mutations in rpoS constituted major obstacles limiting biofilm formation and the expression of extracellular curli fibers in strains of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7. The purpose of this study was to test strains...

Support for the Multidimensional Adolescent Stress Questionnaire in a Sample of Adolescents in the United Kingdom.

Adolescence is a time of physical, social and emotional development, and this development can be accompanied by feelings of stress. The Adolescent Stress Questionnaire is a 56-item scale measuring stress in 10 domains. Developed in Australia, the scale has been translated, and its reliability and validity have been tested in a number of countries across Europe, where the 10-factor, 56-item version of the scale has received little support. The present study tested the factor structure, construct validity and...

Evaluation of normalization reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of spo0A and four sporulation sigma factor genes in Clostridium botulinum Group I strain ATCC 3502.

Heat-resistant spores of Clostridium botulinum can withstand the pasteurization processes in modern food processing. This poses a risk to food safety as spores may germinate into botulinum neurotoxin-producing vegetative cells. Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis, the model organism for sporulation, is regulated by the transcription factor Spo0A and four alternative sigma factors, SigF, SigE, SigG, and SigK. While the corresponding regulators are found in available genomes of C. botulinum, little is known abou...

Structured Syncope Care Pathways Based on Lean Six Sigma Methodology Optimises Resource Use with Shorter Time to Diagnosis and Increased Diagnostic Yield.

To conduct a pilot study on the potential to optimise care pathways in syncope/Transient Loss of Consciousness management by using Lean Six Sigma methodology while maintaining compliance with ESC and/or NICE guidelines.


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