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PubMed Journals Articles About "General Stress Sigma Factor RpoS Influences Time Required" RSS

20:56 EST 7th February 2016 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "General stress sigma factor RpoS influences time required" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 44,000+

Characterization of the general stress response in Bartonella henselae.

Bacteria utilize a general stress response system to combat stresses from their surrounding environments. In alpha-proteobacteria, the general stress response uses an alternate sigma factor as the main regulator and incorporates it with a two-component system into a unique regulatory circuit. This system has been described in several alpha-proteobacterial species, including the pathogens Bartonella quintana and Brucella abortus. Most of the studies have focused on characterizing the PhyR anti-anti-sigma fac...


RpoS differentially affects the general stress response and biofilm formation in the endophytic Serratia plymuthica G3.

The σ(S) subunit RpoS of RNA polymerase functions as a master regulator of the general stress response in Escherichia coli and related bacteria. RpoS has been reported to modulate biocontrol properties in the rhizobacterium Serratia plymuthica IC1270. However, the role of RpoS in the stress response and biofilm formation in S. plymuthica remains largely unknown. Here we studied the role of RpoS from an endophytic S. plymuthica G3 in regulating these phenotypes. Mutational analysis demonstrated that RpoS po...

Bacterial Sigma Factors and Anti-Sigma Factors: Structure, Function and Distribution.

Sigma factors are multi-domain subunits of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) that play critical roles in transcription initiation, including the recognition and opening of promoters as well as the initial steps in RNA synthesis. This review focuses on the structure and function of the major sigma-70 class that includes the housekeeping sigma factor (Group 1) that directs the bulk of transcription during active growth, and structurally-related alternative sigma factors (Groups 2-4) that control a wide variety ...


Effect of Global Regulators RpoS and Cyclic-AMP/CRP on the Catabolome and Transcriptome of Escherichia coli K12 during Carbon- and Energy-Limited Growth.

For heterotrophic microbes, limited availability of carbon and energy sources is one of the major nutritional factors restricting the rate of growth in most ecosystems. Physiological adaptation to this hunger state requires metabolic versatility which usually involves expression of a wide range of different catabolic pathways and of high-affinity carbon transporters; together, this allows for simultaneous utilization of mixtures of carbonaceous compounds at low concentrations. In Escherichia coli the statio...

Polyamines stimulate the level of the σ38 subunit (RpoS) of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase resulting in the induction of the glutamate decarboxylase dependent acid response system via the gadE regulon.

To study the physiological roles of polyamines, we have carried out a global microarray analysis on the effect of adding polyamines to an Escherichia coli mutant that lacks polyamines because of deletions in the genes in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. Previously, we have reported that the earliest response to polyamine addition is the increased expression of the genes for the glutamate dependent acid resistance system (GDAR). We also presented preliminary evidence for the involvement of rpoS and gadE r...

Transcriptional and Post-Transcriptional Modulation of SPI1 and SPI2 Expression by ppGpp, RpoS and DksA in Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium.

The expression of genes within Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands 1 and 2 (SPI1, SPI2) is required to facilitate invasion and intracellular replication respectively of S. Typhimurium in host cell lines. Control of their expression is complex and occurs via a variety of factors operating at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in response to the environmental stimuli found within the host. Several of the factors that modulate SPI1 and SPI2 expression are involved in the redistribution or modificatio...

Indirect positive effects of a sigma factor RpoN deletion on the lactate-based polymer production in Escherichia coli.

The production of bacterial polyesters, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), has been improved by several rational approaches such as overexpression and/or engineering of the enzymes directly related to PHA biosynthetic pathways. In this study, a new approach at transcription level has been applied to a new category of the copolymer of lactate (LA) and 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), P(LA-co-3HB). When the four disrupting mutants of sigma factors in Escherichia coli, rpoN, rpoS, fliA, fecI, were used as platforms for pro...

Correction: The Rsb Phosphoregulatory Network Controls Availability of the Primary Sigma Factor in Chlamydia trachomatis and Influences the Kinetics of Growth and Development.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005125.].

Structure of the RsbX phosphatase involved in the general stress response of Bacillus subtilis.

In the general stress response of Bacillus subtilis, which is governed by the sigma factor σ(B), stress signalling is relayed by a cascade of Rsb proteins that regulate σ(B) activity. RsbX, a PPM II phosphatase, halts the response by dephosphorylating the stressosome composed of RsbR and RsbS. The crystal structure of RsbX reveals a reorganization of the catalytic centre, with the second Mn(2+) ion uniquely coordinated by Gly47 O from the β4-α1 loop instead of a water molecule as in PPM I phosphatases...

Daily minority stress and affect among gay and bisexual men: A 30-day diary study.

This study examined the time-variant association between daily minority stress and daily affect among gay and bisexual men. Tests of time-lagged associations allow for a stronger causal examination of minority stress-affect associations compared with static assessments. Multilevel modeling allows for comparison of associations between minority stress and daily affect when minority stress is modeled as a between-person factor and a within-person time-fluctuating state.

Experimentally induced stress decreases ideal female reproductive timing.

Previous correlational research shows that childhood adversity is associated with earlier age of reproduction in humans and other species. Such studies, however, cannot show that stressful conditions cause earlier reproduction. Using the cold-pressor task, we built on previous work to test the idea that acute stress influences human reproductive and marital ideals, and that individual stress responses depend on adaptive life history strategies shaped by exposure to adversity during childhood. Acute stress s...

Contribution of the thermotolerance genomic island to increased thermal tolerance in Cronobacter strains.

Cronobacter spp. are opportunistic pathogens associated with serious infections in neonates. Increased stress tolerance, including the thermotolerance of some Cronobacter strains, can promote their survival in production facilities and thus raise the possibility of contamination of dried infant formula which has been identified as a potential source of infection. Some Cronobacter strains contain a genomic island, which might be responsible for increased thermotolerance. By analysis of Cronobacter sequenced...

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Activates the Inflammasome via NLRP3- and Caspase-2-Driven Mitochondrial Damage.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is observed in many human diseases, often associated with inflammation. ER stress can trigger inflammation through nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing (NLRP3) inflammasome, which might stimulate inflammasome formation by association with damaged mitochondria. How ER stress triggers mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammasome activation is ill defined. Here we have used an infection model to show that the IRE1α ER stress sensor regulates regulated mi...

Mechanistic implications of the unique structural features and dimerization of the cytoplasmic domain of the Pseudomonas sigma regulator, PupR.

Gram-negative bacteria tightly regulate intracellular levels of iron, an essential nutrient. To ensure this tight regulation, some outer membrane TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs) that are responsible for iron import stimulate their own transcription in response to extracellular binding by an iron-laden siderophore. This process is mediated by an inner membrane sigma regulator protein (an anti-sigma factor) that transduces an unknown periplasmic signal from the TBDT to release an intracellular sigma facto...

RADICLE Moms Study: Minority Stress and Implications for Lesbian Mothers.

Little is known about depressive symptoms among mothers who identify as lesbian. The aim of the Relationships And Depression In Childbearing LEsbian (RADICLE) Moms study was to investigate the minority stress model to determine if higher levels of social support altered the relationship between gay-specific minority stress and depressive symptoms in a sample of self-identified lesbian women who had one or more children less than 18 years of age living in the household. We hypothesized that social support w...

Decoding genome-wide GadEWX-transcriptional regulatory networks reveals multifaceted cellular responses to acid stress in Escherichia coli.

The regulators GadE, GadW and GadX (which we refer to as GadEWX) play a critical role in the transcriptional regulation of the glutamate-dependent acid resistance (GDAR) system in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655. However, the genome-wide regulatory role of GadEWX is still unknown. Here we comprehensively reconstruct the genome-wide GadEWX transcriptional regulatory network and RpoS involvement in E. coli K-12 MG1655 under acidic stress. Integrative data analysis reveals that GadEWX regulons consist of 45 genes...

Effect of Conjugation on Electron Distributions. Separation of sigma and pi Terms.

The ground states of unsaturated molecules with Cs symmetry have separate sigma and pi molecular orbitals. This makes it possible to calculate the sigma and pi Hirshfeld populations and to analyze the effect of structural changes in more detail. A number of types of compounds have been studied: vinyl derivatives, 1-substituted hexatrienes, phenyl derivatives and 6-membered ring heterocycles. The results are shown as plots of changes in population vs atoms. The sigma and pi components vary widely, depending ...

Redox Changes Induced by General Anesthesia in Critically Ill Patients with Multiple Traumas.

The critically ill polytrauma patient is a constant challenge for the trauma team due to the complexity of the complications presented. Intense inflammatory response and infections, as well as multiple organ dysfunctions, significantly increase the rate of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Moreover, due to the physiological and biochemical imbalances present in this type of patients, the bioproduction of free radicals is significantly accelerated, thus installing the oxidative stress. In the therap...

Cross-stress resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast-new insight into an old phenomenon.

Acquired stress resistance is the result of mild stress causing the acquisition of resistance to severe stress of the same or a different type. The mechanism of "same-stress" resistance (resistance to a second, strong stress after mild primary stress of the same type) probably depends on the activation of defense and repair mechanisms specific for a particular type of stress, while cross-stress resistance (i.e., resistance to a second, strong stress after a different type of mild primary stress) is the effe...

Effects of Psychological Stress on Hypertension in Middle-Aged Chinese: A Cross-Sectional Study.

We examined the effect and relative contributions of different types of stress on the risk of hypertension. Using cluster sampling, 5,976 community-dwelling individuals aged 40-60 were selected. Hypertension was defined according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee, and general psychological stress was defined as experiencing stress at work or home. Information on known risk factors of hypertension (e.g., physical activity levels, food intake, smoking behavior) was collected from participa...

From retrograde signaling to flowering time.

Plant's transition from vegetative to reproductive phase is balanced by intricate cascade of genes regulated by both endogenous and environmental inputs. Stress causes suppression of vegetative growth and acceleration of flowering as an emergency response for preservation of the species. Recently, we determined that expression levels of a transcription factor with 2 B-Box motifs, BBX19, is notably reduced in response to accumulation of high levels of Methylerythritol cyclodiphosphate (MEcPP), a plastidial p...

Do the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form (AQ-S) Primarily Reflect General ASD Traits or Specific ASD Traits? A Bi-Factor Analysis.

In the current study, we fit confirmatory bi-factor models to the items of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form (AQ-S) in order to assess the extents to which the items of each reflect general versus specific factors. The models were fit in a combined sample of individuals with and without a clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. Results indicated that, with the exception of the Attention to Details factor in the AQ and the Numbers/Patterns factors in the AQ-S,...

The Rsb Phosphoregulatory Network Controls Availability of the Primary Sigma Factor in Chlamydia trachomatis and Influences the Kinetics of Growth and Development.

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen that exhibits stage-specific gene transcription throughout a biphasic developmental cycle. The mechanisms that control modulation in transcription and associated phenotypic changes are poorly understood. This study provides evidence that a switch-protein kinase regulatory network controls availability of σ66, the main sigma subunit for transcription in Chlamydia. In vitro analysis revealed that a putative switch-protein kinase regulator, Rsb...

ChIP-Seq Analysis of the σE Regulon of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Reveals New Genes Implicated in Heat Shock and Oxidative Stress Response.

The alternative sigma factor σE functions to maintain bacterial homeostasis and membrane integrity in response to extracytoplasmic stress by regulating thousands of genes both directly and indirectly. The transcriptional regulatory network governed by σE in Salmonella and E. coli has been examined using microarray, however a genome-wide analysis of σE-binding sites in Salmonella has not yet been reported. We infected macrophages with Salmonella Typhimurium over a select time course. Using chromatin immun...

Ethylene responsive factors in the orchestration of stress responses in monocotyledonous plants.

The APETALA2/Ethylene-Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) superfamily of transcription factors (TFs) regulates physiological, developmental and stress responses. Most of the AP2/ERF TFs belong to the ERF family in both dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants. ERFs are implicated in the responses to both biotic and abiotic stress and occasionally impart multiple stress tolerance. Studies have revealed that ERF gene function is conserved in dicots and monocots. Moreover, successful stress tolerance phenotypes are ...


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