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Showing "Placebo Diazepam Seizures" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 1,500+

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Intramuscular midazolam versus intravenous diazepam for treatment of seizures in the pediatric emergency department: A randomized clinical trial.

To compare the therapeutic efficacy of intramuscular midazolam (MDZ-IM) with that of intravenous diazepam (DZP-IV) for seizures in children.

Parenteral Midazolam Is Superior to Diazepam for Treatment of Prehospital Seizures.

Abstract Introduction. Diazepam and midazolam are commonly used by paramedics to treat seizures. A period of drug scarcity was used as an opportunity to compare their effectiveness in treating prehospital seizures. Methods. A retrospective chart review of a single, large, commercial agency during a 29-month period was performed. The period included alternating shortages of both medications. Ambulances were stocked with either diazepam or midazolam based on availability of the drugs. Adult patients who recei...

Are febrile seizures an indication for intermittent benzodiazepine treatment, and if so, in which cases?

Febrile seizures occur in ∼4% of children. After a first febrile seizure, the risk of recurrence is ∼40%, but excellent studies document that febrile seizures do not cause brain damage or deficits in cognition or behaviour. The risk of subsequent epilepsy is 2-4%. Prolonged febrile seizures are of concern because a child may later develop mesial temporal sclerosis and intractable epilepsy in rare cases. Most prolonged febrile seizures represent the first febrile seizure and cannot be anticipated. A firs...

Eslicarbazepine Acetate: A Review of Its Use as Adjunctive Therapy in Refractory Partial-Onset Seizures.

Eslicarbazepine acetate (Aptiom(®), Zebinix(®)) is approved for the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults aged ≥18 years. Adjunctive therapy with oral eslicarbazepine acetate 800 or 1,200 mg once daily was associated with a significantly lower standardized seizure frequency (primary endpoint) than placebo in patients aged ≥18 years with refractory partial-onset seizures in three, randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III trials. In a fourth randomized, double-blind, mult...


Effect of Various Antiepileptic Drugs in Zebrafish PTZ-Seizure Model.

Recently zebrafish larvae have emerged as a high-throughput model for screening pharmacological activities. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of established anticonvulsants, such as valproic acid, carbamazepine, gabapentin, diazepam, lacosamide and pregabalin against pentylenetetrazole (6 mM) seizures in adult zebrafish. Different phases of seizures (increase swim activity, rapid whirlpool-like circling swim behaviour and brief clonus-like seizures leading to loss of posture) were e...

EEG for children with complex febrile seizures.

Febrile seizures can be classified as simple or complex. Complex febrile seizures are associated with fever that lasts longer than 15 minutes, occur more than once within 24 hours and are confined to one side of the child's body. It is common in some countries for doctors to recommend an electroencephalograph (EEG) for children with complex febrile seizures. A limited evidence base is available to support the use of EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures among children.

Caramiphen edisylate as adjunct to standard therapy attenuates soman-induced seizures and cognitive deficits in rats.

The progression of epileptiform activity following soman (GD) exposure is characterized by a period of excessive cholinergic activity followed by excessive glutamatergic activity resulting in status epilepticus, which may lead to neuropathological damage and behavioral deficits. Caramiphen edisylate is an anticholinergic drug with antiglutamatergic properties, which conceptually may be a beneficial therapeutic approach to the treatment of nerve agent exposure. In the present study, rats were exposed to 1.2 ...

Levetiracetam Rectal Administration in Healthy Dogs.

Levetiracetam is used to manage status epilepticus (SE) and cluster seizures (CS) in humans. The drug might be absorbed after rectal administration and could offer a practical adjunct to rectal administration of diazepam in managing SE and CS.

The effect of the kampo medicine yokukansan on preoperative anxiety and sedation levels.

Background. Preoperative anxiety can lead to unfavorable physiological response such as tachycardia and hypertension. Prevention of preoperative anxiety improves surgical outcome and decreases inpatient stay. Yokukansan is one of prescriptions in Kampo, traditional Japanese herbal medicine, and is known to exert anxiolytic effects. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of diazepam and Yokukansan on preoperative anxiety, salivary amylase activity, and sedation levels. Methods. Seventy Ameri...

Midwakh-induced seizures: Case series from UAE.

Drug-induced seizures are rare causes of hospital admissions (Coleman, 2004) [1]. Various classes of drugs are reported to induce seizures either directly, due to their epileptogenic potential or due to drug withdrawal effect, or indirectly, due to systemic and CNS-related side effects (Thundiyil et al., 2011) [2]. Midwakh is commonly used among young Emiratis. However, its CNS-related adverse effects are not well studied. We report seven consecutive patients with a history of seizures provoked by smoking m...

Altered placebo and drug labeling changes the outcome of episodic migraine attacks.

Information provided to patients is thought to influence placebo and drug effects. In a prospective, within-subjects, repeated-measures study of 66 subjects with episodic migraine, we investigated how variations in medication labeling modified placebo and drug effects. An initial attack with no treatment served as a control. In six subsequent migraine attacks, each participant received either placebo or Maxalt (10-mg rizatriptan) administered under three information conditions ranging from negative to neutr...

The role of high-frequency oscillations in epilepsy surgery planning.

Epilepsy is a serious brain disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Approximately two-thirds of seizures can be controlled with antiepileptic medications (Kwan 2000). For some of the others, surgery can completely eliminate or significantly reduce the occurrence of disabling seizures. Localization of epileptogenic areas for resective surgery is far from perfect, and new tools are being investigated to more accurately localize the epileptogenic zone (the zone of the brain where the seizures ...

Comparison of seizure induced by different drugs in ICR Mice.

Objective: To compare seizure induced by different epileptic drugs in ICR mice. Methods: Male adult ICR mice were injected with pilocarpine (Pilo),kainic acid (KA) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) to induce status epilepticus (SE). After 2 h of SE, seizures were terminated by injection of diazepam. Mice were sacrificed and sectioned for assessment of neuronal cell death by Fluro-Jade B staining after 7 d and mossy fiber sprouting by Timm staining after 28 d,respectively. Spontaneous seizures were detected by vi...

Psychological and behavioural treatments for adults with non-epileptic attack disorder.

Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, also known as non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD), have the outward appearance of epilepsy in the absence of physiological or electroencephalographic correlates. Non-epileptic seizures can occur in isolation or in combination with epileptic seizures. The development and maintenance of non-epileptic seizures has been well documented and there is a growing literature on the treatment of non-epileptic seizures which includes non-psychological (including anti-anxiety and ant...

Motivation and expectancy influences in placebo responding: The mediating role of attention.

Drawing upon research in perception and motivation, the current study proposes a motivation-attention model of placebo in which more motivated persons pay greater attention to placebo-related stimuli, directly influencing placebo response. We manipulated both motivation to respond to placebo and expectations of placebo response in a 2 × 2 design. Participants (N = 152) evaluated a series of placebo pheromones (slightly scented water) of potential romantic dates and made desirability ratings. Consis...

Are all placebo respondents non-smokers?

In smoking cessation trials, placebo response rates are reported to be rather low, and they are lowest when compared to the placebo response rates of treatment of other addictions. We hypothesized that high placebo response rates in trials outside of cessation treatment may predict low participation of smokers, and that non-smoking may be a behavioral marker of the placebo response.

Hypothalamic Dysfunction Without Hamartomas Causing Gelastic Seizures in Optic Nerve Hypoplasia.

This report describes gelastic seizures in patients with optic nerve hypoplasia and hypothalamic dysfunction without hypothalamic hamartoma. All participants (n = 4) from the optic nerve hypoplasia registry study at Children's Hospital Los Angeles presenting with gelastic seizures were included. The clinical and pathology characteristics include hypothalamic dysgenesis and dysfunction, but no hamartomas. Optic nerve hypoplasia is the only reported condition with gelastic seizures without hypothalamic hamart...

Dose Finding with the Sequential Parallel Comparison Design.

SUMMARY The sequential parallel comparison design (SPCD) is a two-stage design recommended for trials with possibly high placebo response. A drug-placebo comparison in the first stage is followed in the second stage by placebo non-responders being re-randomized between drug and placebo. We describe how SPCD can be used in trials where multiple doses of a drug or multiple treatments are compared with placebo and present two adaptive approaches. We detail how to analyze data in such trials and give recommenda...

Placebo analgesia in patients with functional and organic abdominal pain: a fMRI study in IBS, UC and healthy volunteers.

Understanding the neural circuitry of placebo analgesia in the context of visceral pain is increasingly important given evidence of clinical benefit of placebo treatment in IBS. This functional MRI study addressed placebo analgesia in IBS, UC and healthy control (HC) volunteers.

Comparison of the endothelial toxicity induced by short-term amiodarone and diazepam exposure in a human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (EVC304).

Abstract Context: Venous irritation is the most common side effect of intravenous therapy. Although many in vitro models have been developed to evaluate intravenous drug irritation, these models are not widely accepted. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to determine whether delayed or immediate cytotoxicity better reflects the in vivo venous irritation ranking. Materials and methods: We compared the endothelial toxicity induced by high-concentrations of amiodarone and diazepam after short-term exposure (...

Placebo Response in Antipsychotic Clinical Trials: A Meta-analysis.

Because increasing placebo response rates decrease drug-placebo differences and increase the number of failed trials, it is imperative to determine what is causing this trend.

The association between tranexamic acid and convulsive seizures after cardiac surgery: a multivariate analysis in 11 529 patients.

Because of a lack of contemporary data regarding seizures after cardiac surgery, we undertook a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from 11 529 patients in whom cardiopulmonary bypass was used from January 2004 to December 2010. A convulsive seizure was defined as a transient episode of disturbed brain function characterised by abnormal involuntary motor movements. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of postoperative seizures. A total of 100 (...

Misoprostol for termination of pregnancy-can it precipitate a seizure in a well controlled secondary epileptic tuberculoma patient?

A 35 year woman G2P0A1L0 at 16 weeks period of gestation, underwent termination of pregnancy for a fetus having a large lumbosacral meningomyelocele and Arnold chairi II malformation. She was a known treated case of tuberculoma of the brain who was not on any antiepileptics, and had been seizure free for the past two years. She developed two episodes of seizures precipitated during pregnancy termination with misoprostol. She received intravenous diazepam and phenytoin and was safely discharged home after sh...

Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychogenic Seizures in Veterans.

To evaluate a proposed seizure etiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a risk factor for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs), the effect of reported TBI severity on the diagnosis of PNES versus epileptic seizures (ESs), and the potential moderating role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Diazepam and Jacobson's progressive relaxation show similar attenuating short-term effects on stress-related brain glucose consumption.

A non-pharmacological method to reduce anxiety is "progressive relaxation" (PR). The aim of the method is to reduce mental stress and associated mental processes by means of progressive suppression of muscle tension. The study was addressed to evaluate changes in brain glucose metabolism induced by PR in patients under a stressing state generated by a diagnostic medical intervention. The effect of PR was compared to a dose of sublingual diazepam, with the prediction that both interventions would be associat...

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