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18:17 EDT 28th August 2015 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Placebo Diazepam Seizures" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 1,400+

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Hyperventilation and photic stimulation are useful additions to a placebo-based suggestive seizure induction protocol in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

The early and definitive diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures is a common challenge in epileptology practice. Suggestive seizure induction is a valuable tool to aid the differentiation between epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, especially when long-term video-EEG monitoring is inconclusive or unavailable. In this retrospective analysis, we compared the diagnostic yield of a classical, placebo-based induction protocol with that of an extended protocol that includes hyperventilation an...

Intramuscular and rectal therapies of acute seizures.

The intramuscular (IM) and rectal routes are alternative routes of delivery for antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) when the intravenous route is not practical or possible. For treatment of acute seizures, the AED used should have a short time to maximum concentration (Tmax). Some AEDs have preparations that may be given intramuscularly. These include the benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam) and others (fosphenytoin, levetiracetam). Although phenytoin and valproate have parenteral preparations, these...

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Diurnal and Seasonal Occurrence of Febrile Seizures.

Febrile seizures are the most common seizures in children, but their pathogenesis remains unknown. Some studies have suggested an association between the light-dependent secretion of melatonin and the occurrence of febrile seizures. The diurnal and seasonal occurrence of febrile seizures could clarify the role daylight plays in febrile seizures.

A review of the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate in the management of partial-onset seizures.

Eslicarbazepine acetate is a is a once-daily antiepileptic drug (AED) that was approved in 2009 by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) (Zebinix™), and in 2013 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Aptiom™) as adjunctive therapy in adults with refractory partial-onset seizures, with or without secondary generalization. It is a third-generation member of the dibenzazepine family of AEDs with distinctive mechanism of action, posology and tolerability profile. The eslicarbazepine acetate development...

Prevention of status epilepticus-induced brain edema and neuronal cell loss by repeated treatment with High-dose levetiracetam.

The management of status epilepticus (SE) is important to prevent mortality and the development of post-SE symptomatic epilepsy. Acquired epilepsy after an initial brain insult by SE can be experimentally reproduced in the murine model of SE induced by pilocarpine. In the present study, we evaluated the possibility of treatment with a high-dose of levetiracetam in this model. Repeated treatment with high-dose levetiracetam after termination of SE by diazepam significantly prevented the incidence of spontane...

Stabilization of Human Serum Albumin against Urea Denaturation by Diazepam and Ketoprofen.

Stabilizing effect of diazepam and ketoprofen, Sudlow's site II markers on human serum albumin (HSA) against urea denaturation was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy. The two-step, three-state urea transition of HSA was transformed into a single-step, two-state transition with the abolishment of the intermediate state along with a shift of the transition curve towards higher urea concentrations in the presence of diazepam or ketoprofen. Interestingly, a greater shift in the transition curve of HSA was ...

Use of an online epilepsy diary to characterize repetitive seizures.

Little is known about patterns of seizures that occur multiple times a day, sometimes called clusters or serial seizures.

Antiepileptic drugs as prophylaxis for post-craniotomy seizures.

The incidence of seizures following supratentorial craniotomy for non-traumatic pathology has been estimated to be between 15% to 20%; however, the risk of experiencing a seizure may vary from 3% to 92% over a five-year period. Postoperative seizures can precipitate the development of epilepsy; seizures are most likely to occur within the first month of cranial surgery. The use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) administered pre- or postoperatively to prevent seizures following cranial surgery has been investiga...

Effects of diazepam on glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampal CA1 area of rats with traumatic brain injury.

The activity of the Schaffer collaterals of hippocampal CA3 neurons and hippocampal CA1 neurons has been shown to increase after fluid percussion injury. Diazepam can inhibit the hyperexcitability of rat hippocampal neurons after injury, but the mechanism by which it affects excitatory synaptic transmission remains poorly understood. Our results showed that diazepam treatment significantly increased the slope of input-output curves in rat neurons after fluid percussion injury. Diazepam significantly decreas...

The AMPA receptor antagonist perampanel in the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures: clinical trial evidence and experience.

More than 20 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are currently available for the medical treatment of epilepsies. However, still about 30% of all epilepsies have a drug-resistant course. Even worse, in the case of some epilepsy syndromes, freedom from seizures is almost never achieved. Therefore, new treatment options are still necessary, especially if theoretical concepts such as a new mode of action offer new horizons. Perampanel is the first-in-class orally active, selective, noncompetitive antagonist of α-amino...

Treating seizures in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Seizures are known to occur in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). In the setting of a rapidly progressive condition with no effective therapy, determining appropriate treatment for seizures can be difficult if clinical morbidity is not obvious yet the electroencephalogram (EEG) demonstrates a worrisome pattern such as status epilepticus. Herein, we present the case of a 39-year-old man with CJD and electrographic seizures, discuss how this case challenges conventional definitions of seizures, and discuss a ra...

Patterns of seizure control in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampus sclerosis.

Objective Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) may present unstable pattern of seizures. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence of relapse-remitting seizures in MTLE with (MTLE-HS) and without (MTLE-NL) hippocampal sclerosis. Method We evaluated 172 patients with MTLE-HS (122) or MTLE-NL (50). Relapse-remitting pattern was defined as periods longer than two years of seizure-freedom intercalated with seizure recurrence. "Infrequent seizures" was considered as up to three seizures per year and "fre...

Hypnosis, Hypnotizability, and Placebo.

Dr. Raz's speculations about the relation between placebo responsivity and hypnotizability are critically examined. While there is no generally accepted theoretical definition of hypnosis, there is a general consensus that hypnotizability can be reliably measured. In contrast, there seems to be a general consensus about a theoretical definition of placebo (including placebo effect, placebo response, and nocebo). There is no widely accepted measure of individual differences in placebo responsivity. Various m...

The Many Etiologies of Neonatal Hypocalcemic Seizures.

Seizures during the neonatal period have a broad differential diagnosis. Unlike in developing countries where hypovitaminosis D and hypocalcemia constitutes a major cause of infantile seizures, the number of neonatal seizures attributed to hypocalcemia in developed countries has decreased dramatically due to the improvement of infant formulas and vitamin D supplementation. In these countries, most infants that present with hypocalcemic seizures have underlying endocrinological etiologies rather than dietary...

Effects of premedication with sustained-release buprenorphine hydrochloride and anesthetic induction with ketamine hydrochloride or propofol in combination with diazepam on intraocular pressure in healthy sheep.

OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of diazepam combined with ketamine hydrochloride or propofol for induction of anesthesia (IOA) following premedication with sustained-release buprenorphine hydrochloride (SRB) on intraocular pressure (IOP) in sheep. ANIMALS 20 healthy adult sheep. PROCEDURES Diazepam with ketamine or propofol was given IV to each of 10 sheep after premedication with SRB (0.01 mg/kg, SC); after > 4 weeks, each sheep received the other induction combination with no premedication. For both ey...

A review of the efficacy and safety of extended-release topiramate in the adjunctive treatment for refractory partial-onset seizures.

Topiramate has been widely utilized worldwide as an effective medication against partial- and generalized-onset seizures. Extended-release topiramate was developed to provide patients with the convenience of once-daily dosing and potentially improved tolerability by reducing serum concentration fluctuation. USL255 is a once-daily, extended-release formulation of topiramate, which was recently approved in the USA. Compared with immediate-release topiramate taken twice daily, once-daily USL255 provides equiva...

Evaluation of the anticonvulsant and anxiolytic potentials of methyl jasmonate in mice.

Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is one of the most well-studied plant stress hormones belonging to the jasmonate family. Previous studies have shown that MJ potentiated pentobarbitone sleeping time and enhanced GABA-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission, suggesting potential benefits in disorders associated with hyperactivity of the brain. This study was carried out to evaluate whether MJ has anticonvulsant and anxiolytic properties in mice. The anticonvulsant effect was assessed based on the prevention of tonic-clon...

Anaesthetic induction and recovery characteristics of a diazepam-ketamine combination compared with propofol in dogs.

Induction of anaesthesia occasionally has been associated with undesirable behaviour in dogs. High quality of induction of anaesthesia with propofol has been well described while in contrast variable induction and recovery quality has been associated with diazepam-ketamine. In this study, anaesthetic induction and recovery characteristics of diazepam-ketamine combination with propofol alone were compared in dogs undergoing elective orchidectomy. Thirty-six healthy adult male dogs were used. After habitus sc...

Efficacy and tolerability of benzodiazepines for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

The objective of this review is to summarize the available data on the use of benzodiazepines for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic search of 5 major databases, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and Cochrane Collaboration, yielded a total of 5 RCTs. One study compared diazepam to thioridazine, 1 trial compared oxazepam to haloperidol and diphenhydramine, 1 trial compared alprazolam to lorazepam, 1 trial compared...

The GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Exendin-4 and Diazepam Differentially Regulate GABAA Receptor-Mediated Tonic Currents in Rat Hippocampal CA3 Pyramidal Neurons.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a metabolic hormone that is secreted in a glucose-dependent manner and enhances insulin secretion. GLP-1 receptors are also found in the brain where their signalling affects neuronal activity. We have previously shown that the GLP-1 receptor agonists, GLP-1 and exendin-4 enhanced GABA-activated synaptic and tonic currents in rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. The hippocampus is the centre for memory and learning and is important for cognition. Here we examined if exend...

Interneuron Activity Leads to Initiation of Low-Voltage Fast-Onset Seizures.

Seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy can be classified as hypersynchronous and low-voltage fast according to their onset patterns. Experimental evidence suggests that low-voltage fast-onset seizures mainly result from the synchronous activity of GABA releasing cells. In this study, we tested this hypothesis using the optogenetic control of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the entorhinal cortex, in the in vitro 4-aminopyridine model. We found that both spontaneous and optogenetically-induced seizures had s...

Occipital seizures and subcortical T2 hypointensity in the setting of hyperglycemia.

Occipital lobe seizures are a recognized manifestation of diabetic nonketotic hyperglycemia, though not as common as focal motor seizures. Occipital lobe white matter T2 hypointensity may suggest this diagnosis.

Seizures and Meperidine: Overstated and Underutilized.

Meperidine is used for pain control and treatment of shivering. Concerns about neurotoxicity, particularly seizures, have led to efforts limiting meperidine use. We reviewed the body of evidence linking meperidine to seizures. We searched PubMed for the terms meperidine, normeperidine, pethidine, and norpethidine; each was combined with the terms: seizure, epilepsy, epileptogenic, toxicity, overdose, seizure threshold, and convulsion. Articles were assessed for relevance. Semiologies were reviewed to ascert...

Incidence of seizures on continuous EEG monitoring following traumatic brain injury in children.

OBJECT Seizures may cause diagnostic confusion and be a source of metabolic stress after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. The incidence of electroencephalography (EEG)-confirmed seizures and of subclinical seizures in the pediatric population with TBI is not well known. METHODS A routine protocol for continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring was initiated for all patients with moderate or severe TBI at a Level 1 pediatric trauma center. Over a 3.5-year period, all patients with TBI who underwent cEEG monito...

PRRT2 Mutations Are Related to Febrile Seizures in Epileptic Patients.

Previous studies reported that the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) gene was identified to be related to paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), infantile convulsions with PKD, PKD with migraine and benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE). The present study explores whether the PRRT2 mutation is a potential cause of febrile seizures, including febrile seizures plus (FS+), generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) and Dravet syndrome (DS); thus, it may provide a new drug target f...



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