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Showing "Placebo Diazepam Seizures" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 1,400+

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Parenteral Midazolam Is Superior to Diazepam for Treatment of Prehospital Seizures.

Abstract Introduction. Diazepam and midazolam are commonly used by paramedics to treat seizures. A period of drug scarcity was used as an opportunity to compare their effectiveness in treating prehospital seizures. Methods. A retrospective chart review of a single, large, commercial agency during a 29-month period was performed. The period included alternating shortages of both medications. Ambulances were stocked with either diazepam or midazolam based on availability of the drugs. Adult patients who recei...

Are febrile seizures an indication for intermittent benzodiazepine treatment, and if so, in which cases?

Febrile seizures occur in ∼4% of children. After a first febrile seizure, the risk of recurrence is ∼40%, but excellent studies document that febrile seizures do not cause brain damage or deficits in cognition or behaviour. The risk of subsequent epilepsy is 2-4%. Prolonged febrile seizures are of concern because a child may later develop mesial temporal sclerosis and intractable epilepsy in rare cases. Most prolonged febrile seizures represent the first febrile seizure and cannot be anticipated. A firs...

Hyperventilation and photic stimulation are useful additions to a placebo-based suggestive seizure induction protocol in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

The early and definitive diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures is a common challenge in epileptology practice. Suggestive seizure induction is a valuable tool to aid the differentiation between epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, especially when long-term video-EEG monitoring is inconclusive or unavailable. In this retrospective analysis, we compared the diagnostic yield of a classical, placebo-based induction protocol with that of an extended protocol that includes hyperventilation an...

Intramuscular and rectal therapies of acute seizures.

The intramuscular (IM) and rectal routes are alternative routes of delivery for antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) when the intravenous route is not practical or possible. For treatment of acute seizures, the AED used should have a short time to maximum concentration (Tmax). Some AEDs have preparations that may be given intramuscularly. These include the benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam) and others (fosphenytoin, levetiracetam). Although phenytoin and valproate have parenteral preparations, these...

Relevant

Diurnal and Seasonal Occurrence of Febrile Seizures.

Febrile seizures are the most common seizures in children, but their pathogenesis remains unknown. Some studies have suggested an association between the light-dependent secretion of melatonin and the occurrence of febrile seizures. The diurnal and seasonal occurrence of febrile seizures could clarify the role daylight plays in febrile seizures.

Stabilization of Human Serum Albumin against Urea Denaturation by Diazepam and Ketoprofen.

Stabilizing effect of diazepam and ketoprofen, Sudlow's site II markers on human serum albumin (HSA) against urea denaturation was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy. The two-step, three-state urea transition of HSA was transformed into a single-step, two-state transition with the abolishment of the intermediate state along with a shift of the transition curve towards higher urea concentrations in the presence of diazepam or ketoprofen. Interestingly, a greater shift in the transition curve of HSA was ...

Prevention of status epilepticus-induced brain edema and neuronal cell loss by repeated treatment with High-dose levetiracetam.

The management of status epilepticus (SE) is important to prevent mortality and the development of post-SE symptomatic epilepsy. Acquired epilepsy after an initial brain insult by SE can be experimentally reproduced in the murine model of SE induced by pilocarpine. In the present study, we evaluated the possibility of treatment with a high-dose of levetiracetam in this model. Repeated treatment with high-dose levetiracetam after termination of SE by diazepam significantly prevented the incidence of spontane...

Use of an online epilepsy diary to characterize repetitive seizures.

Little is known about patterns of seizures that occur multiple times a day, sometimes called clusters or serial seizures.

Effects of diazepam on glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampal CA1 area of rats with traumatic brain injury.

The activity of the Schaffer collaterals of hippocampal CA3 neurons and hippocampal CA1 neurons has been shown to increase after fluid percussion injury. Diazepam can inhibit the hyperexcitability of rat hippocampal neurons after injury, but the mechanism by which it affects excitatory synaptic transmission remains poorly understood. Our results showed that diazepam treatment significantly increased the slope of input-output curves in rat neurons after fluid percussion injury. Diazepam significantly decreas...

Antiepileptic drugs as prophylaxis for post-craniotomy seizures.

The incidence of seizures following supratentorial craniotomy for non-traumatic pathology has been estimated to be between 15% to 20%; however, the risk of experiencing a seizure may vary from 3% to 92% over a five-year period. Postoperative seizures can precipitate the development of epilepsy; seizures are most likely to occur within the first month of cranial surgery. The use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) administered pre- or postoperatively to prevent seizures following cranial surgery has been investiga...

The AMPA receptor antagonist perampanel in the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures: clinical trial evidence and experience.

More than 20 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are currently available for the medical treatment of epilepsies. However, still about 30% of all epilepsies have a drug-resistant course. Even worse, in the case of some epilepsy syndromes, freedom from seizures is almost never achieved. Therefore, new treatment options are still necessary, especially if theoretical concepts such as a new mode of action offer new horizons. Perampanel is the first-in-class orally active, selective, noncompetitive antagonist of α-amino...

Treating seizures in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Seizures are known to occur in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). In the setting of a rapidly progressive condition with no effective therapy, determining appropriate treatment for seizures can be difficult if clinical morbidity is not obvious yet the electroencephalogram (EEG) demonstrates a worrisome pattern such as status epilepticus. Herein, we present the case of a 39-year-old man with CJD and electrographic seizures, discuss how this case challenges conventional definitions of seizures, and discuss a ra...

Seizures caused by pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency in adults: A case report and literature review.

Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency is a recognised cause of intractable seizures in neonates. However, pyridoxine deficiency related seizures in adults were rarely reported. This article reports a case of a 79 year old lady who suffered from new-onset seizures and was successfully treated with vitamin B6. The patient had chronic renal disease and weight loss due to anepithymia following a pelvic fracture. This article also reviews literatures of seizures caused by pyridoxine deficiency in adults. Seizures c...

Patterns of seizure control in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampus sclerosis.

Objective Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) may present unstable pattern of seizures. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence of relapse-remitting seizures in MTLE with (MTLE-HS) and without (MTLE-NL) hippocampal sclerosis. Method We evaluated 172 patients with MTLE-HS (122) or MTLE-NL (50). Relapse-remitting pattern was defined as periods longer than two years of seizure-freedom intercalated with seizure recurrence. "Infrequent seizures" was considered as up to three seizures per year and "fre...

Hypnosis, Hypnotizability, and Placebo.

Dr. Raz's speculations about the relation between placebo responsivity and hypnotizability are critically examined. While there is no generally accepted theoretical definition of hypnosis, there is a general consensus that hypnotizability can be reliably measured. In contrast, there seems to be a general consensus about a theoretical definition of placebo (including placebo effect, placebo response, and nocebo). There is no widely accepted measure of individual differences in placebo responsivity. Various m...

Common variants associated with general and MMR vaccine-related febrile seizures.

Febrile seizures represent a serious adverse event following measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination. We conducted a series of genome-wide association scans comparing children with MMR-related febrile seizures, children with febrile seizures unrelated to vaccination and controls with no history of febrile seizures. Two loci were distinctly associated with MMR-related febrile seizures, harboring the interferon-stimulated gene IFI44L (rs273259: P = 5.9 × 10(-12) versus controls, P = 1.2 × 10(-9) versus...

The Many Etiologies of Neonatal Hypocalcemic Seizures.

Seizures during the neonatal period have a broad differential diagnosis. Unlike in developing countries where hypovitaminosis D and hypocalcemia constitutes a major cause of infantile seizures, the number of neonatal seizures attributed to hypocalcemia in developed countries has decreased dramatically due to the improvement of infant formulas and vitamin D supplementation. In these countries, most infants that present with hypocalcemic seizures have underlying endocrinological etiologies rather than dietary...

A review of the efficacy and safety of extended-release topiramate in the adjunctive treatment for refractory partial-onset seizures.

Topiramate has been widely utilized worldwide as an effective medication against partial- and generalized-onset seizures. Extended-release topiramate was developed to provide patients with the convenience of once-daily dosing and potentially improved tolerability by reducing serum concentration fluctuation. USL255 is a once-daily, extended-release formulation of topiramate, which was recently approved in the USA. Compared with immediate-release topiramate taken twice daily, once-daily USL255 provides equiva...

Evaluation of the anticonvulsant and anxiolytic potentials of methyl jasmonate in mice.

Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is one of the most well-studied plant stress hormones belonging to the jasmonate family. Previous studies have shown that MJ potentiated pentobarbitone sleeping time and enhanced GABA-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission, suggesting potential benefits in disorders associated with hyperactivity of the brain. This study was carried out to evaluate whether MJ has anticonvulsant and anxiolytic properties in mice. The anticonvulsant effect was assessed based on the prevention of tonic-clon...

The GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Exendin-4 and Diazepam Differentially Regulate GABAA Receptor-Mediated Tonic Currents in Rat Hippocampal CA3 Pyramidal Neurons.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a metabolic hormone that is secreted in a glucose-dependent manner and enhances insulin secretion. GLP-1 receptors are also found in the brain where their signalling affects neuronal activity. We have previously shown that the GLP-1 receptor agonists, GLP-1 and exendin-4 enhanced GABA-activated synaptic and tonic currents in rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. The hippocampus is the centre for memory and learning and is important for cognition. Here we examined if exend...

Efficacy and tolerability of benzodiazepines for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

The objective of this review is to summarize the available data on the use of benzodiazepines for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic search of 5 major databases, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and Cochrane Collaboration, yielded a total of 5 RCTs. One study compared diazepam to thioridazine, 1 trial compared oxazepam to haloperidol and diphenhydramine, 1 trial compared alprazolam to lorazepam, 1 trial compared...

Interneuron Activity Leads to Initiation of Low-Voltage Fast-Onset Seizures.

Seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy can be classified as hypersynchronous and low-voltage fast according to their onset patterns. Experimental evidence suggests that low-voltage fast-onset seizures mainly result from the synchronous activity of GABA releasing cells. In this study, we tested this hypothesis using the optogenetic control of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the entorhinal cortex, in the in vitro 4-aminopyridine model. We found that both spontaneous and optogenetically-induced seizures had s...

Long-term video EEG monitoring for diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures have long been known by many names. A short list includes hysteroepilepsy, hysterical seizures, pseudoseizures, nonepileptic events, nonepileptic spells, nonepileptic seizures, and psychogenic nonepileptic attacks. These events are typically misdiagnosed for years and are frequently treated as electrographic seizures and epilepsy. These patients experience all the side effects of antiepileptic drugs and none of the benefits. Video electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring is th...

Occipital seizures and subcortical T2 hypointensity in the setting of hyperglycemia.

Occipital lobe seizures are a recognized manifestation of diabetic nonketotic hyperglycemia, though not as common as focal motor seizures. Occipital lobe white matter T2 hypointensity may suggest this diagnosis.

Seizures and Meperidine: Overstated and Underutilized.

Meperidine is used for pain control and treatment of shivering. Concerns about neurotoxicity, particularly seizures, have led to efforts limiting meperidine use. We reviewed the body of evidence linking meperidine to seizures. We searched PubMed for the terms meperidine, normeperidine, pethidine, and norpethidine; each was combined with the terms: seizure, epilepsy, epileptogenic, toxicity, overdose, seizure threshold, and convulsion. Articles were assessed for relevance. Semiologies were reviewed to ascert...



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