PubMed Journals Articles About "Placebo Diazepam Seizures" RSS

11:22 EDT 30th September 2016 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Placebo Diazepam Seizures" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 1,400+

Hypersensitivity reaction associated with phenytoin.

Hypersensitivity reactions with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are generally associated with aromatic AEDs. We present a case of hypersensitivity reactions followed by administration of phenytoin with diazepam and ranitidine in a patient with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Antigen-antibody reactions or decreased levels of epoxide hydrolase are well known with phenytoin. Increased level of serum phenytoin causing toxicities due to competitive inhibition with diazepam on co-administration was also reported in...

Adjunctive everolimus therapy for treatment-resistant focal-onset seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis (EXIST-3): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, has been used for various benign tumours associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. We assessed the efficacy and safety of two trough exposure concentrations of everolimus, 3-7 ng/mL (low exposure) and 9-15 ng/mL (high exposure), compared with placebo as adjunctive therapy for treatment-resistant focal-onset seizures in tuberous sclerosis complex.

Acute seizures in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: What predicts it?

Seizures are the presenting feature of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) in 12-31.9% of patients. 44.3% of patients have seizures in the early stage of the disease. Acute seizures (AS), refers to seizures which take place before the diagnosis or during the first 2 weeks afterward.

CSF and plasma adipokines after tonic-clonic seizures.

Adipokines, especially leptin and adiponectin, have gained increasing importance in pathophysiology of various neurological diseases including epilepsy. There are experimental data suggesting a role for leptin in the genesis of seizures and neuroprotection related to seizures. However there are no clinical studies on the effects of epileptic seizures on adipokines.

EEG for children with complex febrile seizures.

This is an updated version of original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2014.Febrile seizures can be classified as simple or complex. Complex febrile seizures are associated with fever that lasts longer than 15 minutes, occur more than once within 24 hours and are confined to one side of the child's body. It is common in some countries for doctors to recommend an electroencephalograph (EEG) for children with complex febrile seizures. A limited evidence base is available to support the use of EEG and it...

Efficacy and safety of retigabine/ezogabine as adjunctive therapy in adult Asian patients with drug-resistant partial-onset seizures: A randomized, placebo-controlled Phase III study.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive retigabine/ezogabine (RTG/EZG) therapy in Asian adults with partial-onset seizures.

Efficacy and safety of adjunctive lacosamide for the treatment of partial-onset seizures in Chinese and Japanese adults: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive lacosamide treatment in Chinese and Japanese adults with uncontrolled focal (partial-onset) seizures (POS), with or without secondary generalization.

Investigation of diazepam efficacy on anxiety-like behavior in hemiparkinsonian rats.

There is growing recognition that anxiety disorders have a greater impact on quality of life in Parkinson's disease than motor symptoms. Yet, little is known about the pathophysiology underlying this non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease which poses a considerable barrier in developing effective treatment strategies. Here, we administered diazepam to hemiparkinsonian and non-parkinsonian rats and assessed its efficacy in three anxiety behavioral tests. At present, no information about this exists in prec...

Pharmacologic Management of Neonatal Seizures.

Seizures are most often the only sign of a central nervous dysfunction in the neonate. Neonatal seizures are a symptom of a specific disease entity. The search for a cause of neonatal seizures should focus on perinatal history or acute metabolic changes in the neonate. There are four classifications of neonatal seizures: clonic, tonic, myoclonic, and subtle. Simultaneous electroencephalogram and video recording are tools to assist the practitioner in the evaluation of difficult-to-assess subtle behaviors. A...

Differential Diagnosis of Epileptic and Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures and Treatment Consequences.

Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are one of the most important differential diagnoses of epileptic seizures and represent a challenging pathology for clinicians. The aim of this article is to impart clinical criteria for an accurate diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures since an early and appropriate treatment may considerably improve the prognosis.

Clobazam-treated patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome experienced fewer seizure-related injuries than placebo patients during trial OV-1012.

Drop seizures are especially problematic in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) because of their potential for serious injury. In this post hoc analysis of phase 3 OV-1012 data, a medical review was conducted of seizure-related injuries based on Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) preferred terms from all adverse event (AE) listings. Patients receiving clobazam experienced fewer seizure-related injuries than those receiving placebo (8.9% all clobazam dosages vs. 27.1% placebo, p ...

Effect of diclofenac sodium on seizures and inflammatory profile induced by kindling seizure model.

Epilepsy is a disorder that affects 1-2% of the population and a significant percentage of these patients do not respond to anticonvulsant drugs available in the market suggesting the need to investigate new pharmacological treatments. Several studies have shown that inflammation occurs during epileptogenesis and may contribute to the development and progression of epilepsy, demonstrating increased levels of pro-inflammatory interleukins in animal models and human patients. The objective of this study was t...

Analysis of Distribution of Energy Barriers in Amorphous Diazepam - Based on Computationally Supported NMR Relaxation Data.

The crystalline and amorphous diazepam - a psychoactive drug - was investigated by employing spin-lattice relaxation 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) along with atom-atom calculations of landscape of energy barriers. The activation barriers for reorientation of the methyl group in amorphous diazepam were found in the range of 1.9 kJ/mol to 12.7 kJ/mol. Atom-atom calculations permitted determination of the distribution of energy barriers for reorientations of methyl groups, which was in a good agreement w...

Predictors and characteristics of seizures in survivors of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

This study aims to determine the risk factors for epileptogenesis and characteristics of seizures in patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) who survive more than 1 year from onset of neurological symptoms (PML survivors). We reviewed clinical data including seizure history and MR imaging studies from PML survivors evaluated at our institution between 1997 and 2014. PML progressors who passed away within 1 year and patients with a history of seizures prior to PML diagnosis were excl...

Measuring the Severity of Neonatal Seizures: Temporal-Spatial Burden.

The American Clinical Neurophysiology Society recommends measuring neonatal seizures' severity by their frequency (number of seizures anywhere per hour), burden (percentage of time with seizures anywhere), or on a region-by-region, temporal-spatial basis. This study compares two reduced-channel montages for temporal-spatial seizure burden analyses and examines the agreement of seizures' quantification among these three methodologies.

Genetics of reflex seizures and epilepsies in humans and animals.

Reflex seizures are epileptic events triggered by specific motor, sensory or cognitive stimulation. This comprehensive narrative review focuses on the role of genetic determinants in humans and animal models of reflex seizures and epilepsies.

Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of adjunctive brivaracetam for secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures: Pooled results from three Phase III studies.

Secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (SGTCS) are among the most devastating types of seizures, contributing to increased morbidity and mortality. Brivaracetam (BRV), a selective, high-affinity ligand for synaptic vesicle 2A (SV2A), has been shown to be useful for the adjunctive treatment of focal seizures. We sought to determine its specific efficacy in treating SGTCS.

Risk of Seizures Associated with Antidepressant Use in Patients with Depressive Disorder: Follow-up Study with a Nested Case-Control Analysis Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

Antidepressant use has been associated with an increased risk of seizures. Evidence on the association between antidepressant use at therapeutic doses and seizures mainly comes from clinical trials that were not designed to investigate this potential relationship.

The causes of new-onset epilepsy and seizures in the elderly.

With increasing age, the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy and seizures increases correspondingly. New-onset epilepsy in elderly people often has underlying etiology, including cerebrovascular diseases, primary neuron degenerative disorders, intracerebral tumors, and traumatic head injury. In addition, an acute symptomatic seizure cannot be called epilepsy, which manifests usually as a common symptom secondary to metabolic or toxicity factors in older people. In this review, we have mainly focused on the...

Epidemiology of Acute Symptomatic Seizures among Adult Medical Admissions.

Acute symptomatic seizures are seizures occurring in close temporal relationship with an acute central nervous system (CNS) insult. The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of presentation and etiological risk factors of acute symptomatic seizures among adult medical admissions. It was a two-year retrospective study of the medical files of adults patients admitted with acute symptomatic seizures as the first presenting event. There were 94 cases of acute symptomatic seizures accounting for ...

The Effect of the Type and Colour of Placebo Stimuli on Placebo Effects Induced by Observational Learning.

Research shows that placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia can be induced through observational learning. Our aim was to replicate and extend these results by studying the influence of the type and colour of stimuli used as placebos on the placebo effects induced by observational learning. Three experimental and two control groups were tested. All participants received pain stimuli of the same intensity preceded by colour lights (green and red) or geometric shapes (circles and squares). Before receiving ...

Behavioral and genotoxic evaluation of rosmarinic and caffeic acid in acute seizure models induced by pentylenetetrazole and pilocarpine in mice.

The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA) in the acute pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and pilocarpine (PIL) seizure models. We also evaluated the effect of RA and CA on the diazepam (DZP)-induced sleeping time test and its possible neuroprotective effect against the genotoxic damage induced by PTZ and PIL. Mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with saline, RA (2 or 4 mg/kg), or CA (4 or 8 mg/kg) alone or associated to low-dose DZP. After, mice recei...

Seizures triggered by pentylenetetrazol in marmosets made chronically epileptic with pilocarpine show greater refractoriness to treatment.

The efficiency of most of the new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on clinical trials still falls short the success reported in pre-clinical studies, possibly because the validity of the animal models is insufficient to fully represent the human pathology. To improve the translational value for testing AEDs, we propose the use of non-human primates. Here, we suggest that triggering limbic seizures with low doses of PTZ in pilocarpine-treated marmosets might provide a more effective basis for the development of AE...

A microPET comparison of the effects of etifoxine and diazepam on (11)Cflumazenil uptake in rat brains.

Using positron emission tomography (PET), the present study assessed the binding of [(11)C]flumazenil to GABA-A receptors in anesthetized rats following a single intravenous injection of an active dose of either etifoxine (25mg/kg) or diazepam (1mg/kg), which are both anxiolytic drugs. [(11)C]flumazenil binding was measured in five discrete brain structures, namely the caudate putamen, hippocampus, cerebellum, occipital cortex and parietal cortex. As expected, diazepam injection produced a significant decre...

Reduced expression of IA channels is associated with post-ischemic seizures.

Post-stroke seizures are considered as a major cause of epilepsy in adults. The pathophysiologic mechanisms resulting in post-stroke seizures are not fully understood. The present study attempted to reveal a new mechanism underlying neuronal hyperexcitability responsible to the seizure development after ischemic stroke.

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