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05:23 EDT 30th March 2015 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Placebo Diazepam Seizures" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 1,500+

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Intramuscular midazolam versus intravenous diazepam for treatment of seizures in the pediatric emergency department: A randomized clinical trial.

To compare the therapeutic efficacy of intramuscular midazolam (MDZ-IM) with that of intravenous diazepam (DZP-IV) for seizures in children.

Parenteral Midazolam Is Superior to Diazepam for Treatment of Prehospital Seizures.

Abstract Introduction. Diazepam and midazolam are commonly used by paramedics to treat seizures. A period of drug scarcity was used as an opportunity to compare their effectiveness in treating prehospital seizures. Methods. A retrospective chart review of a single, large, commercial agency during a 29-month period was performed. The period included alternating shortages of both medications. Ambulances were stocked with either diazepam or midazolam based on availability of the drugs. Adult patients who recei...

Are febrile seizures an indication for intermittent benzodiazepine treatment, and if so, in which cases?

Febrile seizures occur in ∼4% of children. After a first febrile seizure, the risk of recurrence is ∼40%, but excellent studies document that febrile seizures do not cause brain damage or deficits in cognition or behaviour. The risk of subsequent epilepsy is 2-4%. Prolonged febrile seizures are of concern because a child may later develop mesial temporal sclerosis and intractable epilepsy in rare cases. Most prolonged febrile seizures represent the first febrile seizure and cannot be anticipated. A firs...

Eslicarbazepine Acetate: A Review of Its Use as Adjunctive Therapy in Refractory Partial-Onset Seizures.

Eslicarbazepine acetate (Aptiom(®), Zebinix(®)) is approved for the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults aged ≥18 years. Adjunctive therapy with oral eslicarbazepine acetate 800 or 1,200 mg once daily was associated with a significantly lower standardized seizure frequency (primary endpoint) than placebo in patients aged ≥18 years with refractory partial-onset seizures in three, randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III trials. In a fourth randomized, double-blind, mult...

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Diurnal and Seasonal Occurrence of Febrile Seizures.

Febrile seizures are the most common seizures in children, but their pathogenesis remains unknown. Some studies have suggested an association between the light-dependent secretion of melatonin and the occurrence of febrile seizures. The diurnal and seasonal occurrence of febrile seizures could clarify the role daylight plays in febrile seizures.

Effect of Various Antiepileptic Drugs in Zebrafish PTZ-Seizure Model.

Recently zebrafish larvae have emerged as a high-throughput model for screening pharmacological activities. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of established anticonvulsants, such as valproic acid, carbamazepine, gabapentin, diazepam, lacosamide and pregabalin against pentylenetetrazole (6 mM) seizures in adult zebrafish. Different phases of seizures (increase swim activity, rapid whirlpool-like circling swim behaviour and brief clonus-like seizures leading to loss of posture) were e...

Prevention of status epilepticus-induced brain edema and neuronal cell loss by repeated treatment with High-dose levetiracetam.

The management of status epilepticus (SE) is important to prevent mortality and the development of post-SE symptomatic epilepsy. Acquired epilepsy after an initial brain insult by SE can be experimentally reproduced in the murine model of SE induced by pilocarpine. In the present study, we evaluated the possibility of treatment with a high-dose of levetiracetam in this model. Repeated treatment with high-dose levetiracetam after termination of SE by diazepam significantly prevented the incidence of spontane...

Effects of diazepam on glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampal CA1 area of rats with traumatic brain injury.

The activity of the Schaffer collaterals of hippocampal CA3 neurons and hippocampal CA1 neurons has been shown to increase after fluid percussion injury. Diazepam can inhibit the hyperexcitability of rat hippocampal neurons after injury, but the mechanism by which it affects excitatory synaptic transmission remains poorly understood. Our results showed that diazepam treatment significantly increased the slope of input-output curves in rat neurons after fluid percussion injury. Diazepam significantly decreas...

Antiepileptic drugs as prophylaxis for post-craniotomy seizures.

The incidence of seizures following supratentorial craniotomy for non-traumatic pathology has been estimated to be between 15% to 20%; however, the risk of experiencing a seizure may vary from 3% to 92% over a five-year period. Postoperative seizures can precipitate the development of epilepsy; seizures are most likely to occur within the first month of cranial surgery. The use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) administered pre- or postoperatively to prevent seizures following cranial surgery has been investiga...

Caramiphen edisylate as adjunct to standard therapy attenuates soman-induced seizures and cognitive deficits in rats.

The progression of epileptiform activity following soman (GD) exposure is characterized by a period of excessive cholinergic activity followed by excessive glutamatergic activity resulting in status epilepticus, which may lead to neuropathological damage and behavioral deficits. Caramiphen edisylate is an anticholinergic drug with antiglutamatergic properties, which conceptually may be a beneficial therapeutic approach to the treatment of nerve agent exposure. In the present study, rats were exposed to 1.2 ...

Treating seizures in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Seizures are known to occur in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). In the setting of a rapidly progressive condition with no effective therapy, determining appropriate treatment for seizures can be difficult if clinical morbidity is not obvious yet the electroencephalogram (EEG) demonstrates a worrisome pattern such as status epilepticus. Herein, we present the case of a 39-year-old man with CJD and electrographic seizures, discuss how this case challenges conventional definitions of seizures, and discuss a ra...

Seizures caused by pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency in adults: A case report and literature review.

Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency is a recognised cause of intractable seizures in neonates. However, pyridoxine deficiency related seizures in adults were rarely reported. This article reports a case of a 79 year old lady who suffered from new-onset seizures and was successfully treated with vitamin B6. The patient had chronic renal disease and weight loss due to anepithymia following a pelvic fracture. This article also reviews literatures of seizures caused by pyridoxine deficiency in adults. Seizures c...

Patterns of seizure control in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampus sclerosis.

Objective Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) may present unstable pattern of seizures. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence of relapse-remitting seizures in MTLE with (MTLE-HS) and without (MTLE-NL) hippocampal sclerosis. Method We evaluated 172 patients with MTLE-HS (122) or MTLE-NL (50). Relapse-remitting pattern was defined as periods longer than two years of seizure-freedom intercalated with seizure recurrence. "Infrequent seizures" was considered as up to three seizures per year and "fre...

Common variants associated with general and MMR vaccine-related febrile seizures.

Febrile seizures represent a serious adverse event following measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination. We conducted a series of genome-wide association scans comparing children with MMR-related febrile seizures, children with febrile seizures unrelated to vaccination and controls with no history of febrile seizures. Two loci were distinctly associated with MMR-related febrile seizures, harboring the interferon-stimulated gene IFI44L (rs273259: P = 5.9 × 10(-12) versus controls, P = 1.2 × 10(-9) versus...

The Many Etiologies of Neonatal Hypocalcemic Seizures.

Seizures during the neonatal period have a broad differential diagnosis. Unlike in developing countries where hypovitaminosis D and hypocalcemia constitutes a major cause of infantile seizures, the number of neonatal seizures attributed to hypocalcemia in developed countries has decreased dramatically due to the improvement of infant formulas and vitamin D supplementation. In these countries, most infants that present with hypocalcemic seizures have underlying endocrinological etiologies rather than dietary...

Midwakh-induced seizures: Case series from UAE.

Drug-induced seizures are rare causes of hospital admissions (Coleman, 2004) [1]. Various classes of drugs are reported to induce seizures either directly, due to their epileptogenic potential or due to drug withdrawal effect, or indirectly, due to systemic and CNS-related side effects (Thundiyil et al., 2011) [2]. Midwakh is commonly used among young Emiratis. However, its CNS-related adverse effects are not well studied. We report seven consecutive patients with a history of seizures provoked by smoking m...

Efficacy and tolerability of benzodiazepines for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

The objective of this review is to summarize the available data on the use of benzodiazepines for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic search of 5 major databases, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and Cochrane Collaboration, yielded a total of 5 RCTs. One study compared diazepam to thioridazine, 1 trial compared oxazepam to haloperidol and diphenhydramine, 1 trial compared alprazolam to lorazepam, 1 trial compared...

Interneuron Activity Leads to Initiation of Low-Voltage Fast-Onset Seizures.

Seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy can be classified as hypersynchronous and low-voltage fast according to their onset patterns. Experimental evidence suggests that low-voltage fast-onset seizures mainly result from the synchronous activity of GABA releasing cells. In this study, we tested this hypothesis using the optogenetic control of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the entorhinal cortex, in the in vitro 4-aminopyridine model. We found that both spontaneous and optogenetically-induced seizures had s...

Motivation and expectancy influences in placebo responding: The mediating role of attention.

Drawing upon research in perception and motivation, the current study proposes a motivation-attention model of placebo in which more motivated persons pay greater attention to placebo-related stimuli, directly influencing placebo response. We manipulated both motivation to respond to placebo and expectations of placebo response in a 2 × 2 design. Participants (N = 152) evaluated a series of placebo pheromones (slightly scented water) of potential romantic dates and made desirability ratings. Consis...

Comparison of the endothelial toxicity induced by short-term amiodarone and diazepam exposure in a human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (EVC304).

Abstract Context: Venous irritation is the most common side effect of intravenous therapy. Although many in vitro models have been developed to evaluate intravenous drug irritation, these models are not widely accepted. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to determine whether delayed or immediate cytotoxicity better reflects the in vivo venous irritation ranking. Materials and methods: We compared the endothelial toxicity induced by high-concentrations of amiodarone and diazepam after short-term exposure (...

Long-term video EEG monitoring for diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures have long been known by many names. A short list includes hysteroepilepsy, hysterical seizures, pseudoseizures, nonepileptic events, nonepileptic spells, nonepileptic seizures, and psychogenic nonepileptic attacks. These events are typically misdiagnosed for years and are frequently treated as electrographic seizures and epilepsy. These patients experience all the side effects of antiepileptic drugs and none of the benefits. Video electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring is th...

Are all placebo respondents non-smokers?

In smoking cessation trials, placebo response rates are reported to be rather low, and they are lowest when compared to the placebo response rates of treatment of other addictions. We hypothesized that high placebo response rates in trials outside of cessation treatment may predict low participation of smokers, and that non-smoking may be a behavioral marker of the placebo response.

Dose Finding with the Sequential Parallel Comparison Design.

SUMMARY The sequential parallel comparison design (SPCD) is a two-stage design recommended for trials with possibly high placebo response. A drug-placebo comparison in the first stage is followed in the second stage by placebo non-responders being re-randomized between drug and placebo. We describe how SPCD can be used in trials where multiple doses of a drug or multiple treatments are compared with placebo and present two adaptive approaches. We detail how to analyze data in such trials and give recommenda...

Placebo analgesia in patients with functional and organic abdominal pain: a fMRI study in IBS, UC and healthy volunteers.

Understanding the neural circuitry of placebo analgesia in the context of visceral pain is increasingly important given evidence of clinical benefit of placebo treatment in IBS. This functional MRI study addressed placebo analgesia in IBS, UC and healthy control (HC) volunteers.

Occipital seizures and subcortical T2 hypointensity in the setting of hyperglycemia.

Occipital lobe seizures are a recognized manifestation of diabetic nonketotic hyperglycemia, though not as common as focal motor seizures. Occipital lobe white matter T2 hypointensity may suggest this diagnosis.


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