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04:58 EDT 29th August 2016 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Placebo Diazepam Seizures" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 1,400+

Hypersensitivity reaction associated with phenytoin.

Hypersensitivity reactions with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are generally associated with aromatic AEDs. We present a case of hypersensitivity reactions followed by administration of phenytoin with diazepam and ranitidine in a patient with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Antigen-antibody reactions or decreased levels of epoxide hydrolase are well known with phenytoin. Increased level of serum phenytoin causing toxicities due to competitive inhibition with diazepam on co-administration was also reported in...

Forebrain-independent generation of hyperthermic convulsions in infant rats.

Febrile seizures are the most common type of convulsive events in children. It is generally assumed that the generalization of these seizures is a result of brainstem invasion by the initial limbic seizure activity. Using precollicular transection in 13-day-old rats to isolate the forebrain from the brainstem, we demonstrate that the forebrain is not required for generation of tonic-clonic convulsions induced by hyperthermia or kainate. Compared with sham-operated littermate controls, latency to onset of co...

Reflex seizures triggered by cutaneous stimuli.

Among the different precipitating stimuli for reflex seizures, Touch-Induced Seizures (TIS) and Hot Water Seizures (HWS) are consistently described in different reports. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical, EEG and image data of patients with TIS and HWS.

Acute seizures in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: What predicts it?

Seizures are the presenting feature of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) in 12-31.9% of patients. 44.3% of patients have seizures in the early stage of the disease. Acute seizures (AS), refers to seizures which take place before the diagnosis or during the first 2 weeks afterward.

CSF and plasma adipokines after tonic-clonic seizures.

Adipokines, especially leptin and adiponectin, have gained increasing importance in pathophysiology of various neurological diseases including epilepsy. There are experimental data suggesting a role for leptin in the genesis of seizures and neuroprotection related to seizures. However there are no clinical studies on the effects of epileptic seizures on adipokines.

EEG for children with complex febrile seizures.

This is an updated version of original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2014.Febrile seizures can be classified as simple or complex. Complex febrile seizures are associated with fever that lasts longer than 15 minutes, occur more than once within 24 hours and are confined to one side of the child's body. It is common in some countries for doctors to recommend an electroencephalograph (EEG) for children with complex febrile seizures. A limited evidence base is available to support the use of EEG and it...

Efficacy and safety of retigabine/ezogabine as adjunctive therapy in adult Asian patients with drug-resistant partial-onset seizures: A randomized, placebo-controlled Phase III study.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive retigabine/ezogabine (RTG/EZG) therapy in Asian adults with partial-onset seizures.

Investigation of diazepam efficacy on anxiety-like behavior in hemiparkinsonian rats.

There is growing recognition that anxiety disorders have a greater impact on quality of life in Parkinson's disease than motor symptoms. Yet, little is known about the pathophysiology underlying this non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease which poses a considerable barrier in developing effective treatment strategies. Here, we administered diazepam to hemiparkinsonian and non-parkinsonian rats and assessed its efficacy in three anxiety behavioral tests. At present, no information about this exists in prec...

Neonatal Seizures: Impact on Neurodevelopmental Outcomes.

Neonatal period is the most vulnerable time for the occurrence of seizures, and neonatal seizures often pose a clinical challenge both for their acute management and frequency of associated long-term co-morbidities. Etiologies of neonatal seizures are known to play a primary role in the anti-epileptic drug responsiveness and the long-term sequelae. Recent studies have suggested that burden of acute recurrent seizures in neonates may also impact chronic outcomes independent of the etiology. However, not many...

Pharmacologic Management of Neonatal Seizures.

Seizures are most often the only sign of a central nervous dysfunction in the neonate. Neonatal seizures are a symptom of a specific disease entity. The search for a cause of neonatal seizures should focus on perinatal history or acute metabolic changes in the neonate. There are four classifications of neonatal seizures: clonic, tonic, myoclonic, and subtle. Simultaneous electroencephalogram and video recording are tools to assist the practitioner in the evaluation of difficult-to-assess subtle behaviors. A...

Differential Diagnosis of Epileptic and Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures and Treatment Consequences.

Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are one of the most important differential diagnoses of epileptic seizures and represent a challenging pathology for clinicians. The aim of this article is to impart clinical criteria for an accurate diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures since an early and appropriate treatment may considerably improve the prognosis.

Clobazam-treated patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome experienced fewer seizure-related injuries than placebo patients during trial OV-1012.

Drop seizures are especially problematic in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) because of their potential for serious injury. In this post hoc analysis of phase 3 OV-1012 data, a medical review was conducted of seizure-related injuries based on Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) preferred terms from all adverse event (AE) listings. Patients receiving clobazam experienced fewer seizure-related injuries than those receiving placebo (8.9% all clobazam dosages vs. 27.1% placebo, p ...

Tranexamic acid-associated seizures: Causes and treatment.

Antifibrinolytic drugs are routinely used worldwide to reduce the bleeding that results from a wide range of hemorrhagic conditions. The most commonly used antifibrinolytic drug, tranexamic acid, is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative seizures. The reported increase in the frequency of seizures is alarming, as these events are associated with adverse neurological outcomes, longer hospital stays and increased in-hospital mortality. However, many clinicians are unaware that tranexamic acid...

Predictors and characteristics of seizures in survivors of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

This study aims to determine the risk factors for epileptogenesis and characteristics of seizures in patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) who survive more than 1 year from onset of neurological symptoms (PML survivors). We reviewed clinical data including seizure history and MR imaging studies from PML survivors evaluated at our institution between 1997 and 2014. PML progressors who passed away within 1 year and patients with a history of seizures prior to PML diagnosis were excl...

Measuring the Severity of Neonatal Seizures: Temporal-Spatial Burden.

The American Clinical Neurophysiology Society recommends measuring neonatal seizures' severity by their frequency (number of seizures anywhere per hour), burden (percentage of time with seizures anywhere), or on a region-by-region, temporal-spatial basis. This study compares two reduced-channel montages for temporal-spatial seizure burden analyses and examines the agreement of seizures' quantification among these three methodologies.

Genetics of reflex seizures and epilepsies in humans and animals.

Reflex seizures are epileptic events triggered by specific motor, sensory or cognitive stimulation. This comprehensive narrative review focuses on the role of genetic determinants in humans and animal models of reflex seizures and epilepsies.

Risk of Seizures Associated with Antidepressant Use in Patients with Depressive Disorder: Follow-up Study with a Nested Case-Control Analysis Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

Antidepressant use has been associated with an increased risk of seizures. Evidence on the association between antidepressant use at therapeutic doses and seizures mainly comes from clinical trials that were not designed to investigate this potential relationship.

The causes of new-onset epilepsy and seizures in the elderly.

With increasing age, the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy and seizures increases correspondingly. New-onset epilepsy in elderly people often has underlying etiology, including cerebrovascular diseases, primary neuron degenerative disorders, intracerebral tumors, and traumatic head injury. In addition, an acute symptomatic seizure cannot be called epilepsy, which manifests usually as a common symptom secondary to metabolic or toxicity factors in older people. In this review, we have mainly focused on the...

The Effect of the Type and Colour of Placebo Stimuli on Placebo Effects Induced by Observational Learning.

Research shows that placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia can be induced through observational learning. Our aim was to replicate and extend these results by studying the influence of the type and colour of stimuli used as placebos on the placebo effects induced by observational learning. Three experimental and two control groups were tested. All participants received pain stimuli of the same intensity preceded by colour lights (green and red) or geometric shapes (circles and squares). Before receiving ...

A microPET comparison of the effects of etifoxine and diazepam on (11)Cflumazenil uptake in rat brains.

Using positron emission tomography (PET), the present study assessed the binding of [(11)C]flumazenil to GABA-A receptors in anesthetized rats following a single intravenous injection of an active dose of either etifoxine (25mg/kg) or diazepam (1mg/kg), which are both anxiolytic drugs. [(11)C]flumazenil binding was measured in five discrete brain structures, namely the caudate putamen, hippocampus, cerebellum, occipital cortex and parietal cortex. As expected, diazepam injection produced a significant decre...

Epidemiology of Acute Symptomatic Seizures among Adult Medical Admissions.

Acute symptomatic seizures are seizures occurring in close temporal relationship with an acute central nervous system (CNS) insult. The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of presentation and etiological risk factors of acute symptomatic seizures among adult medical admissions. It was a two-year retrospective study of the medical files of adults patients admitted with acute symptomatic seizures as the first presenting event. There were 94 cases of acute symptomatic seizures accounting for ...

Pattern, etiological factors and determinants of mortality among sick newborns with seizures in Ilesa, Nigeria.

Neonatal seizures contribute significantly to newborn morbidity and mortality particularly in developing countries including Nigeria. Unfortunately the countries with high incidence of neonatal seizures often lack the facilities to adequately diagnose, monitor and prognosticate the condition.

Behavioral and genotoxic evaluation of rosmarinic and caffeic acid in acute seizure models induced by pentylenetetrazole and pilocarpine in mice.

The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA) in the acute pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and pilocarpine (PIL) seizure models. We also evaluated the effect of RA and CA on the diazepam (DZP)-induced sleeping time test and its possible neuroprotective effect against the genotoxic damage induced by PTZ and PIL. Mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with saline, RA (2 or 4 mg/kg), or CA (4 or 8 mg/kg) alone or associated to low-dose DZP. After, mice recei...

Trait predictors of placebo responses in itch.

This study investigated trait predictors of placebo responses in the context of inflammatory skin reactions. This was a randomized, cross-over, experimental study using a deceptive placebo protocol. A healthy sample of volunteers (N = 48) completed online personality measures, then attended two laboratory sessions in which short-term inflammatory skin reactions were induced. One was a control session and the other the 'treatment' session in which a placebo cream was administered with the suggestion of a r...

Seizures triggered by pentylenetetrazol in marmosets made chronically epileptic with pilocarpine show greater refractoriness to treatment.

The efficiency of most of the new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on clinical trials still falls short the success reported in pre-clinical studies, possibly because the validity of the animal models is insufficient to fully represent the human pathology. To improve the translational value for testing AEDs, we propose the use of non-human primates. Here, we suggest that triggering limbic seizures with low doses of PTZ in pilocarpine-treated marmosets might provide a more effective basis for the development of AE...

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