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22:29 EDT 19th August 2017 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Placebo Diazepam Seizures" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 1,300+

New Non-Intravenous Routes for Benzodiazepines in Epilepsy: A Clinician Perspective.

Benzodiazepines represent the first-line treatment for the acute management of epileptic seizures and status epilepticus. The emergency use of benzodiazepines must be timely, and because most seizures occur outside of the hospital environment, there is a significant need for delivery methods that are easy for nonclinical caregivers to use and administer quickly and safely. In addition, the ideal route of administration should be reliable in terms of absorption. Rectal diazepam is the only licensed formulati...

Short-term and long-term effects of diazepam on the memory for discrimination and generalization of scopolamine.

Benzodiazepines are among the most widely prescribed and misused psychopharmaceutical drugs. Although they are well-tolerated, they are also capable of producing amnestic effects similar to those observed after pharmacological or organic cholinergic dysfunction. To date, the effect of benzodiazepine diazepam on the memory for discrimination of anticholinergic drugs has not been reported. The aim of the present study was to analyze the immediate and long-term effects of diazepam on a drug discrimination task...

Pre-stroke seizures: A nationwide register-based investigation.

The relationship between cerebrovascular disease and seizures is clearly illustrated by poststroke epilepsy. Seizures can also be the first manifestation of cerebrovascular disease and case-control studies have demonstrated that seizures carry an increased risk of subsequent stroke. Thus, seizures could serve as a marker for vascular risk that merits intervention, but more data is needed before proper trials can be conducted. The occurrence of pre-stroke seizures has not been assessed on a national scale. W...

Randomized Placebo-Controlled Placebo Trial to Determine the Placebo Effect Size.

It is the gold standard to use a placebo treatment as the control group in prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Although placebo-controlled trials can reveal an effect of an active treatment, the pure effect of a placebo treatment alone has never been presented or evaluated. No evidence-based, placebo-therapeutic options are currently available, and no placebo-controlled trials have been performed to elucidate the pure placebo effect.

The Lorazepam and Diazepam Protocol for Catatonia Due to General Medical Condition and Substance in Liaison Psychiatry.

The lorazepam-diazepam protocol had been proved to rapidly and effectively relieve catatonia in patients with schizophrenia or mood disorder. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of lorazepam-diazepam protocol in catatonia due to general medical conditions (GMC) and substance.

BGG492 as an adjunctive treatment in patients with partial-onset seizures: A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II dose-titration study with an open-label extension.

To evaluate dose-response relationship of BGG492 as add-on therapy to 1-3 antiepileptic drugs in patients with partial-onset seizures and to investigate safety and tolerability of BGG492.

Epileptic features and survival in glioblastomas presenting with seizures.

The prognostic value of seizures in patients with glioblastoma is currently under discussion. The objective of this research was to study the risk factors associated with seizures occurring at the diagnosis of glioblastoma and the role of seizures as a predictive factor for survival.


High prevalence of therapy-resistant epilepsy demands development of anticonvulsants with new mechanisms of action. Brivaracetam is an analogue of levetiracetam which binds to the synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) and decreases release of excitatory neurotransmitters. Areas covered. Relevant published studies were searched for by predefined strategy in MEDLINE, EBSCO and SCINDEKS electronic databases. Brivaracetam is effective as adjunctive therapy for uncontrolled partial-onset seizures with or without se...

Levetiracetam in toxic seizures.

The use of levetiracetam (LEV) in the management of drug-induced seizures has not been systematically investigated. Repetitive and continuous seizures that do not respond to benzodiazepines require second line therapy. Levetiracetam has a unique receptor binding site, rapid absorption, no known cardiac effects at therapeutic doses, and is theoretically a good candidate for use in drug-induced seizures. We evaluate the safety of LEV and its association with seizure cessation in this retrospective chart revie...

Clinical utility of serum lactate levels for differential diagnosis of generalized tonic-clonic seizures from psychogenic nonepileptic seizures and syncope.

The differential diagnosis of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), and syncope constitutes a major challenge. Misdiagnosis rates up to 20 to 30% are reported in the literature.

Periictal activity in cooled asphyxiated neonates with seizures.

Seizures are common in critically ill neonates. Both seizures and antiepileptic treatments may lead to short term complications and worsen the outcomes. Predicting the risks of seizure reoccurrence could enable individual treatment regimens and better outcomes. We aimed to identify EEG signatures of seizure reoccurrence by investigating periictal electrographic features and spectral power characteristics in hypothermic neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) with or without reoccurrence of seizu...

Brivaracetam: An Adjunctive Treatment for Partial-Onset Seizures.

Brivaracetam is an analogue of levetiracetam that is Food and Drug Administration-approved for adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures in patients 16 years and older. In placebo-controlled trials adjunct brivaracetam demonstrated efficacy in reducing the frequency of seizures. The most commonly reported adverse effects are somnolence, dizziness, and fatigue. Clinical trials have evaluated brivaracetam for safety and efficacy in adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures in patients 16 years and o...

Minimizing E-factor in the continuous-flow synthesis of diazepam and atropine.

Minimizing the waste stream associated with the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and commodity chemicals is of high interest within the chemical industry from an economic and environmental perspective. In exploring solutions to this area, we herein report a highly optimized and environmentally conscious continuous-flow synthesis of two APIs identified as essential medicines by the World Health Organization, namely diazepam and atropine. Notably, these approaches significantly reduced th...

Increasing efficacy and reducing side effects in treatment of chronic anal fissures: A study of topical diazepam therapy.

This is a single institution nonexperimental study intended to analyze the therapeutic efficacy of topical diazepam in treating symptoms of chronic anal fissures.Anal fissures are a common cause of anal pain. Conventional treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, topical creams, such as nitroglycerin and nifedipine, and surgery. However, these treatments are usually suboptimally efficacious or have deterring side effects.Patients at an outpatient community center with a diagnosis of a chronic...

Modified Suanzaorentang Had the Treatment Effect for Generalized Anxiety Disorder for the First 4 Weeks of Paroxetine Medication: A Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Study.

Background. Paroxetine does not show satisfactory therapeutic effect for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients for the first 2-4 weeks of medication. Diazepam is always concurrently used although it has some shortcomings such as physical dependence and withdrawal reactions. In this study, we aimed to identify whether modified Suanzaorentang (MSZRT), a combined Chinese formula including Suanzaorentang (SZRT) and Zhizichitang (ZZCT), could control the anxiety of GAD for the first 4 weeks of paroxetine m...

Treatment of Seizures and Postanoxic Status Epilepticus.

Seizures are a common occurrence following cardiac arrest and may occur both during targeted temperature management and after rewarming. Postanoxic seizures may be nonconvulsive and very difficult to diagnose without electroencephalography (EEG) or associated with prominent myoclonus. Importantly, to date no randomized controlled trials are available to guide the management of seizures in patients with cardiac arrest. Seizure prophylaxis is not recommended, and when seizures are diagnosed they are typically...

Diazepam actions in the VTA enhance social dominance and mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens by activation of dopamine D1 receptors.

Benzodiazepines can ameliorate social disturbances and increase social competition, particularly in high-anxious individuals. However, the neural circuits and mechanisms underlying benzodiazepines' effects in social competition are not understood. Converging evidence points to the mesolimbic system as a potential site of action for at least some benzodiazepine-mediated effects. Furthermore, mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been causally implicated in the link between anxiety and soc...

Hippocampal Proteome of Rats Subjected to the Li-Pilocarpine Epilepsy Model and the Effect of Carisbamate Treatment.

In adult rats, the administration of lithium-pilocarpine (LiPilo) reproduces most clinical and neuropathological features of human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Carisbamate (CRS) possesses the property of modifying epileptogenesis in this model. Indeed, about 50% of rats subjected to LiPilo status epilepticus (SE) develop non-convulsive seizures (NCS) instead of motor seizures when treated with CRS. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. The aim of this study was to perform a prote...

Neurocognitive outcomes among children who experienced seizures during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Limited information is available regarding neurocognitive outcomes of children who experience seizures during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Accordingly, the main objectives of this study were to determine the incidence and risk factors for treatment-related seizures among children with ALL, and the neurocognitive outcomes associated with treatment-related seizures.

Sample size re-estimation and other mid-course adjustments with sequential parallel comparison design.

Sequential parallel comparison design (SPCD) was proposed to reduce placebo response in a randomized trial with placebo comparator. Subjects are randomized between placebo and drug in stage 1 of the trial and then placebo non-responders are re-randomized in stage 2. Efficacy analysis includes all data from stage 1 and all placebo non-responding subjects from stage 2. This article investigates the possibility to re-estimate the sample size and adjust the design parameters, allocation proportion to placebo in...

Congenital Perisylvian Syndrome presenting as Post-partum Seizures with Preeclampsia.

Whether preceded by preeclampsia, or occuring without antecedent warning symptoms, eclamptic seizures usually occur in the antepartum period between 20 and 40 weeks of gestation or within a few hours to 2 days postpartum. We report the case of a patient with pre-eclampsia who developed seizures after more than 2 days of delivery. In view of late onset postpartum seizures and non-responsiveness to magnesium sulphate, she was further evaluated and diagnosed to have congenital perisylvian syndrome(CPS). In CPS...

Harnessing the Placebo Effect: Exploring the Influence of Physician Characteristics on Placebo Response.

Research on placebo/nocebo effects suggests that expectations can influence treatment outcomes, but placebo/nocebo effects are not always evident. This research demonstrates that a provider's social behavior moderates the effect of expectations on physiological outcomes.

Stereotypy of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are defined as paroxysmal episodes in which epileptic semiology features are manifested, without the characteristic concomitant electrical discharges seen in epileptic seizures. Although many studies have dealt with semiologic classification of PNES, most of the studies did not raise the question of consistency of PNES in the same patient. The aim of this study was to measure the degree of consistency of PNES among individual patients. We retrospectively reviewed med...

Ethosuximide, sodium valproate or lamotrigine for absence seizures in children and adolescents.

This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review originally published in 2003, Issue 3, and updated in 2005, Issue 4.Absence seizures are brief epileptic seizures which present in childhood and adolescence. Depending on clinical features and electroencephalogram (EEG) findings they are divided into typical, atypical absences, and absences with special features. Typical absences are characterised by sudden loss of awareness and an EEG typically shows generalised spike wave discharges at three cycle...

Childhood epilepsies: What should a pediatrician know?

Seizures in children are among the most common neurological disorders. A pediatrician should know how to approach a child who presents with a seizure. This review will focus on points that are important in the evaluation of children who have experienced seizures. A comprehensive and neurologically focused framework for history taking and a thorough clinical examination are the cornerstones in diagnosing and managing seizures. This article reviews the clinical approach to the diagnosis, investigation, and ma...

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