Effects of Treatment With Aprepitant (EmendÂ®) in HIV Infected Individuals
The investigators' in vitro data suggest that Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists like aprepitant will decrease the expression of CCR5, an essential co-receptor in the life cycle of HIV, in the surface of macrophages and lymphocytes to levels at least similar to those observed in patients heterozygous for the CCR5 32 mutation. Together with a direct potential antiviral effect this could alter disease progression in patients with HIV infection.
The investigators' hypothesis is that aprepitant is safe, tolerable and has antiviral activity in HIV infected individuals.
This is randomized, placebo controlled, double blind study to determine the safety and antiviral activity of aprepitant by comparing the change in HIV RNA viral load after 2 weeks of aprepitant monotherapy.
27 HIV infected males and females ≥ 18 years old who have early infection with CD4 cell counts ≥ 350 cells/mm3. Subjects will be randomized 1:1:1 to receive two different doses of aprepitant (Emend®) or placebo.
Randomized, placebo controlled, double blind study to determine the safety and antiviral activity of aprepitant by comparing the change in HIV RNA viral load after 2 weeks of aprepitant monotherapy.
SAMPLE SIZE and POPULATION
27 HIV infected males and females ≥ 18 years old who have early infection with CD4 cell counts ≥ 350 cells/mm3.
Subjects will be randomized 1:1:1 to receive two different doses of aprepitant (Emend®) or placebo.
- Arm A: Aprepitant placebo
- Arm B: Aprepitant 125 mg QD
- Arm C: Aprepitant 250 mg QD
HYPOTHESIS AND STUDY OBJECTIVES
- Hypothesis : Aprepitant is safe, tolerable, and has antiviral activity in HIV infected individuals.
- Primary Objectives:
- To assess the safety and tolerability of aprepitant for 2 weeks at two different doses.
- To assess the response of plasma HIV-1 RNA to two different doses of aprepitant compared with baseline.
- Secondary Objectives:
- To investigate the course and duration of antiretroviral response to 2 different doses of aprepitant given over a 14-day period.
- To evaluate the dose-response and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationship between viral RNA change and aprepitant plasma levels.
- To evaluate aprepitant effects on CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts, circulating SP levels, natural killer cell number and function and CCR5 expression in peripheral PBMCs.
- To evaluate the effects of aprepitant in the viral tropism and envelope sequence of the main HIV-1 population of the participants.
- To assess viral drug susceptibility in conjunction with baseline coreceptor tropism phenotype and changes in coreceptor phenotype after the exposure to aprepitant.
- To evaluate aprepitant effects on fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HDL, free fatty acids, and triglyceride concentrations after 14 days of treatment.
- To provide preliminary description of any change from baseline in sleep quality, anxious mood, depressed mood and neurocognitive measures after 2 weeks of aprepitant therapy.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Placebo Control, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor), Primary Purpose: Treatment
Placebo, Aprepitant, Aprepitant
Clinical Trials Unit. University of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00428519
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
Infections with viruses of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes MORBILLIVIRUS INFECTIONS; RESPIROVIRUS INFECTIONS; PNEUMOVIRUS INFECTIONS; HENIPAVIRUS INFECTIONS; AVULAVIRUS INFECTIONS; and RUBULAVIRUS INFECTIONS.
Misunderstanding among individuals, frequently research subjects, of scientific methods such as randomization and placebo controls.
Central Nervous System Infections
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
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