Clofarabine, Melphalan, and Thiotepa Followed By a Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk and/or Advanced Hematologic Cancer or Other Disease
RATIONALE: Giving chemotherapy, such as clofarabine, melphalan, and thiotepa, before a donor stem cell transplant helps stop the growth of cancer or abnormal cells. It also helps stop the patient's immune system from rejecting the donor's stem cells. When the healthy stem cells from a donor are infused into the patient they may help the patient's bone marrow make stem cells, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Sometimes the transplanted cells from a donor can also make an immune response against the body's normal cells. Giving tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil before the transplant may stop this from happening.
PURPOSE: This phase I/II trial is studying the side effects and best dose of clofarabine when given together with melphalan and thiotepa, followed by a donor stem cell transplant and to see how well it works in treating patients with high-risk and/or advanced hematologic cancer or other disease.
- Determine the maximum tolerated dose of clofarabine when administered with melphalan and thiotepa followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with high-risk and/or advanced hematologic malignancies. (Phase I)
- Determine the 1-year disease-free survival of patients treated with this regimen. (Phase II)
- Determine the efficacy of this regimen, in terms of antileukemic potential and relapse rate, in these patients.
- Evaluate the incidence and severity of nonhematologic toxicity of this regimen in these patients.
- Evaluate the incidence and severity of graft-versus-host disease in patients treated with this regimen.
OUTLINE: This is a phase I, dose-escalation study of clofarabine followed by an open-label, phase II study. Patients are stratified according to HLA-compatible donor type (related vs unrelated).
- Cytoreductive therapy: Patients receive clofarabine IV over 2 hours once daily on days -9 to -5, thiotepa IV over 4 hours on day -4, and melphalan IV over 30 minutes once daily on days -3 and -2.
Cohorts of 3-6 patients receive escalating doses of clofarabine until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is determined. The MTD is defined as the dose preceding that at which 2 of 3 or 2 of 6 patients experience dose-limiting toxicity.
- Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis: Patients who undergo bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation receive tacrolimus IV continuously over 24 hours or orally every 8-12 hours beginning on day -3 and methotrexate IV on days 1, 3, 6, and 11. Patients who undergo UCB transplantation receive tacrolimus IV continuously over 24 hours or orally every 8-12 hours beginning on day -3 and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) IV or orally 2 or 3 times daily on days -3 to 45 followed by a taper until day 100 (unless there are signs of acute GVHD). Patients who undergo UCB transplantation without GVHD continue tacrolimus for 6 months followed by a taper and discontinued 1 year after transplantation.
- Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or allogeneic umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation: Patients undergo allogeneic HSCT (bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells) or double UCB transplantation on day 0. Patients also receive filgrastim (G-CSF) IV or subcutaneously beginning on day 7 and continuing until blood counts recover.
- Maintenance therapy: Approximately 2 months after transplantation patients with ALL, M4 or M5 AML, and those transplanted with AML in bone marrow relapse receive cytarabine intrathecally (IT) monthly for up to 5 doses. Patients with a history of CNS leukemia receive cytarabine IT once monthly during months 2-12 after HSCT.
After completion of study therapy, patients are followed periodically for at least 4 years.
PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 42 patients will be accrued for this study.
Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Graft Versus Host Disease
filgrastim, clofarabine, melphalan, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, thiotepa, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, peripheral blood stem cell transplantation
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00423514
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A very toxic alkylating antineoplastic agent also used as an insect sterilant. It causes skin, gastrointestinal, CNS, and bone marrow damage. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), thiotepa may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 11th ed).
Tacrolimus Binding Protein 1a
A 12-KDa tacrolimus binding protein that is found associated with and may modulate the function of calcium release channels. It is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase which is inhibited by both tacrolimus (commonly called FK506) and SIROLIMUS.
An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.
Tacrolimus Binding Proteins
A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-
Tor Serine-threonine Kinases
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that TACROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
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