Diagnostic Utility of MRI in Intracerebral Hemorrhage
The overall aim of this project is to prospectively determine whether MRI can improve the conventional neuroradiological evaluation (CT with or without cerebral angiography) of patients with a spontaneous ICH or IVH. The study design will also allow us to identify the added benefit of specific MR sequences and repeat MRI in the chronic stage, thereby allowing us to prospectively determine their value in a consecutive series of patients. This information should have a major impact on the management of these patients by providing data on the diagnostic yield of routine MRI in patients presenting with a wide variety of causes for ICH or IVH. These data will help guide the diagnostic evaluation and the management of brain hemorrhage patients in the future.
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) account for at least 15% of strokes worldwide. There are many possible etiologies for spontaneous (i.e. non-traumatic) ICH or IVH such as longstanding hypertension and cerebral amyloid angiopathy.
Other causes include vascular malformations, intracranial aneurysms, tumors, coagulopathies, use of thrombolytic or antithrombotic drugs, cerebral venous thrombosis, hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarct, illicit drug use, endocarditis, and vasculitis.
Identification of the cause of an ICH or IVH typically relies on clinical evaluation supported by computer tomography (CT) with or without conventional contrast cerebral angiography in selected patients. While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has substantially improved our diagnostic capabilities, the appropriate use of MRI and its effectiveness has not been studied systematically in these patients. Furthermore, it is unclear whether routine MRI in ICH yields clinically relevant data. For this reason routine use or MRI in patients with ICH is highly variable in clinical practice. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the findings detected on MRI will change management decisions regarding further diagnostic testing and therapeutic options above and beyond that which can be achieved by CT and cerebral angiography.
This question has major ramifications for the care of patients with ICH or IVH. If MRI truly can categorize patients into specific diagnostic categories better than CT, this would represent a major paradigm shift in the way that these patients are typically evaluated. On the other hand, because of the added expense of MRI, its general use could result in a substantial increase in the cost of neurological care. These added costs must result in improvements in patient management in order to justify the added financial resources involved.
The overall aim of this project is to prospectively determine whether MRI can improve the conventional neuroradiological evaluation (CT with or without cerebral angiography) of patients with a spontaneous ICH or IVH. The study design will also allow us to identify the added benefit of specific MR sequences and repeat MRI in the chronic stage, thereby allowing us to prospectively determine their value in a consecutive series of patients. This information should have a major impact on the management of these patients by providing data on the diagnostic yield of routine MRI in patients presenting with a wide variety of causes for ICH or IVH. These data will help guide the diagnostic evaluation and the management of brain hemorrhage patients in the future. During this 5-year study, 160 consecutive inpatients presenting with a spontaneous ICH or IVH within 48 hours of symptom onset will be prospectively categorized into specific hemorrhage subtypes based upon the findings on MRI. We will:
1. Prospectively assess the value of early MRI in determining hemorrhage etiology in consecutive patients who present with a spontaneous ICH or IVH diagnosed by CT. We will test the hypotheses that:
1. MRI will more frequently yield a correct specific hemorrhage etiology than conventional non-contrast CT.
2. MRI will increase the certainty of a specific hemorrhage etiology when compared to conventional non-contrast CT.
3. MRI will affect management in patients who present with a spontaneous ICH or IVH diagnosed by CT.
4. The yield of MRI in patients with a spontaneous ICH or IVH varies among diagnostic categories.
5. Routine use of MRI in patients with spontaneous ICH or IVH will reduce the need for conventional (and invasive) cerebral angiography in these patients.
2. Prospectively assess the relative added value of an improved MR protocol (MRA/MRV, GRE, DWI, TEDS, PROPELLER) in the evaluation and management of patients with ICH or IVH determined by non-contrast CT.
We will test the hypotheses that:
a. MRI with multi-echo, multi-shot GRE sequences, MRA, MR venography (MRV), SENSE-DWI and PROPELLER-DWI will more accurately assign patients into appropriate diagnostic categories than conventional MRI (T1W, T1W post gadolinium, T2W [FSE/FLAIR FSE]) and CT.
3. Prospectively identify the added benefit of repeated MRI in the chronic stage in the evaluation and management of patients with ICH or IVH. We will test the hypotheses that:
1. Repeat MRI in the chronic stage (at 60 days) will yield a specific ICH etiology above and beyond early MRI and CT.
This information will contribute substantially to our understanding of the value of routine MRI in patients with a spontaneous ICH or IVH both in the acute and in the chronic phase. It will also allow us to develop practice guidelines for the use of MRI in these patients.
Observational Model: Cohort, Time Perspective: Prospective
Stanford University School of Medicine
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00363662
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES due to TRAUMA. Hemorrhage may involve any part of the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the BASAL GANGLIA. Depending on the severity of bleeding, clinical features may include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS; and COMA.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)
Brain dysfunction or damage resulting from sustained MALIGNANT HYPERTENSION. When BLOOD PRESSURE exceeds the limits of cerebral autoregulation, cerebral blood flow is impaired (BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING; SEIZURES; altered mental status (in some cases progressing to COMA); PAPILLEDEMA; and RETINAL HEMORRHAGE.
Cerebral Arterial Diseases
Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.
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