The Use of Oral Appliances as an Adjunct to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (C-PAP) in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea
This study will look at whether patients with OSAHS already successfully treated with nasal CPAP could successfully use an oral appliance as a short-term treatment alternative and whether patients who could use an oral appliance as an alternative would actually avail of its use, and to assess their preference in terms of treatment modality. The combination of therapies if tolerated, will allow greater flexibility of treatment and opportunity for ongoing compliance in circumstances where CPAP cannot be used.
Each patient will undergo a detailed history and physical examination with particular attention to symptoms related to sleep disorders, cardiovascular disease, medications, motor vehicle accidents, occupation and change in symptoms. Weight, height and neck circumference will be measured and BMI calculated and compared to previous measurements recorded in the medical chart. The research question we are exploring is whether the oral appliance approach is better in terms of successful treatment, compliance with treatment, safety and quality of life when compared to the conventional CPAP therapy in OSAHS. It is a cross over design. Consecutive patients who
- meet the eligibility criteria
- agree to a trial of therapy with the oral appliance
- give informed consent will be recruited.
Inclusion criteria - stable on C-PAP for at least 3 months, and Previous diagnostic polysomnography within 2 years, and Pre-treatment AHI 10-30 ( mild-moderate sleep apnea), and Compliance > 4hrs per night, and Are willing and able to give informed consent
Exclusion Criteria - AHI >30, or Oxygen Saturation < 85% for > 10% of study time during previous diagnostic PSG, Or less than 8 teeth per jaw Or not enough teeth in good periodontal health to allow retention of the appliance, Operates heavy machinery or motor vehicle as part of job, or Clinical evidence of severe tempero-mandibular joint dysfunction, or Previous Motor Vehicle Crash assoc. with sleepiness, or Major cardiovascular morbidity, or Medically complicated or medically unstable. Thirty patients will be recruited over a period of 1 year. Prior to treatment baseline ESS and SAQLI will be recorded. Physical attributes will be recorded and if BMI and neck circumference are unchanged from pre-treatment records PSG will be deemed unnecessary at this point. Baseline RDI, and snoring index off treatment, will be recorded using portable snoresat monitoring.
All patients will visit the dental clinic for fitting and adjustment of the Klearway appliance. The appliance will be advanced under supervision of the clinic and patients will be assessed at intervals of 2-4 weeks. Titration will be assessed clinically based on patient sleepiness, snoring, comfort, and maximal jaw adjustment. Snoresat monitoring will be repeated while wearing the appliance in the optimal position to ensure adequate titration. Once titration has been completed the patient will be asked to wear the appliance exclusively for a period of at least 7 days. Full PSG will be recorded after 7 days while using the appliance. ESS will be measured at the time of PSG. Treatment efficacy at this point will determine safety to continue using the appliance. Treatment failure will be defined as an ESS >4 over baseline an AHI of >20 or > 50% of pre-treatment baseline.
Patients will be seen and reassessed and informed of sleep study results. Patients able to use the appliance safely will be asked to continue to use their OSA treatments individually and will be allowed to decide themselves which mode of therapy they will use each night. Patients will keep a daily diary recording use of treatment modality, length of time worn and also location (home, vacation etc). At the end of the study patients will be seen and diaries collected. Satisfaction levels will assessed and side effects recorded. Objective CPAP compliance will be analysed by downloading CPAP machines. Future treatment preference in terms of either treatment or a combination will be recorded.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Uncontrolled, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Diagnostic
Obstructive Sleep Apnoea
The Klearway™ oral appliance
UBC Sleep Disorder Program and Sleep Lab, UBC Hospital
University of British Columbia
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00358605
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Sleep Apnea, Central
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.
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