Validation of the San Francisco Syncope Rule
This study was designed to validate the "San Francisco Syncope Rule". This set of rules was derived by Quinn et. al. to help guide the treatment of patients evaluated in the Emergency Department who had an episode of syncope (passed out) or near syncope (almost passed out). A rule that considers patients with an abnormal ECG, a complaint of shortness of breath, hematocrit less than 30%, systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg, or a history of congestive heart failure was shown predict with a good degree of accuracy which patients would have an adverse event and require admission.
This study was designed to validate the "San Francisco Syncope Rule". This set of rules was derived by Quinn et. al. to help guide the treatment of patients evaluated in the Emergency Department who had an episode of syncope or near syncope.
A rule that considers patients with an abnormal ECG, a complaint of shortness of breath, hematocrit less than 30%, systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg, or a history of congestive heart failure was shown predict with a good degree of accuracy which patients would have an adverse event/serious outcome and require admission. Serious outcomes include the following: death,myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, pulmonary embolism, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, significant hemorrhage, or any condition causing a return ED visit and hospitalization for a related event.
In Quinn's derivation trial, the sensitivity of the rule was 96%.
Time Perspective: Prospective
Application of the San Francisco Syncope Rule
Montefiore Medical Center
Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00300625
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)
A condition of fainting spells caused by heart block, often an atrioventricular block, that leads to BRADYCARDIA and drop in CARDIAC OUTPUT. When the cardiac output becomes too low, the patient faints (SYNCOPE). In some cases, the syncope attacks are transient and in others cases repetitive and persistent.
Glossopharyngeal Nerve Diseases
Diseases of the ninth cranial (glossopharyngeal) nerve or its nuclei in the medulla. The nerve may be injured by diseases affecting the lower brain stem, floor of the posterior fossa, jugular foramen, or the nerve's extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include loss of sensation from the pharynx, decreased salivation, and syncope. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia refers to a condition that features recurrent unilateral sharp pain in the tongue, angle of the jaw, external auditory meatus and throat that may be associated with SYNCOPE. Episodes may be triggered by cough, sneeze, swallowing, or pressure on the tragus of the ear. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1390)
Loss of consciousness due to a reduction in blood pressure that is associated with an increase in vagal tone and peripheral vasodilation.
A standard and widely accepted diagnostic test used to identify patients who have a vasodepressive and/or cardioinhibitory response as a cause of syncope. (From Braunwald, Heart Disease, 7th ed)
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