Efficacy of Naltrexone in Women's Smoking Cessation
The purpose of the proposed study is to conduct a randomized, double-blind clinical trial to compare adjunct treatment with 50 mg oral naltrexone vs. placebo in conjunction with standard smoking cessation treatment with nicotine patch and counseling.
1. Naltrexone will improve smoking cessation quit rates, as measured at the end of active treatment (3 months) and during long term follow up (1 year).
2. Weight and smoking-related variables (i.e., less weight gain, as well as reduced craving and withdrawal) will be important factors by which naltrexone improves smoking cessation outcome.
3. These effects are predicted to be stronger in women compared to men.
Although women may be particularly susceptible to the damaging effects of chronic cigarette smoking, evidence indicates that they may have more difficulty in maintaining smoking cessation than men. Given women's reduced response to nicotine replacement and other traditional treatments to habitual cigarette smoking, more targeted pharmacotherapy and intervention strategies may be necessary to improve their quit rates. Preliminary data by our group and others indicate that the opioid antagonist naltrexone may be an effective adjunctive pharmacotherapy approach for female smokers. The purpose of the proposed study is to conduct a randomized clinical trial to compare adjunct treatment with 50 mg oral naltrexone vs. placebo in conjunction with standard smoking cessation treatment with nicotine patch and counseling. Participants (N=324) will be randomized to receive either naltrexone or placebo starting one week prior to the quit date (25 mg for three days; 50 mg thereafter) and continue for 12 weeks after the quit date. The effects of naltrexone will be evaluated during the pre-quit date period, initial smoking cessation, relapse prevention, and at one year follow-up. It is hypothesized that sex will moderate the effects of naltrexone on outcome, with naltrexone improving prolonged abstinence quit rates in women but not in men. The secondary goal will be to elucidate the mechanism underlying women's treatment response to naltrexone. Weight (relative weight gain and weight concerns) and smoking-related variables (reduced cigarette pleasure, taste, craving and relief of negative withdrawal affect) may be important factors by which naltrexone improves quit rates in women. Medication compliance, psychosocial stress and levels of naltrexone's metabolite, 6-B-naltrexol, will also be examined. In sum, the proposed clinical trial will provide a comprehensive study of sex differences in response to adjunct treatment with naltrexone for smoking cessation. Given the public health concerns and significant health consequences of women's continued high rates of smoking, the proposed study may provide important information on a novel treatment strategy targeting the endogenous opioid system to selectively aid in women's smoking cessation.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Placebo Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator), Primary Purpose: Treatment
The University of Chicago, Department of Psychiatry
Active, not recruiting
University of Chicago
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00271024
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.
Substance Withdrawal Syndrome
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
Motivational state produced by inconsistencies between simultaneously held cognitions or between a cognition and behavior; e.g., smoking enjoyment and believing smoking is harmful are dissonant.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
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