Determining Safety and Efficacy of Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine When Given With Measles Vaccine
This study will determine whether it is safe and effective to administer Japanese encephalitis (JE) live attenuated SA 14-14-2 vaccine at the same time as measles vaccine. If it is found to be safe, it will pave the way for use in routine vaccination programs. The hypothesis is that children who receive JE live attenuated SA 14-14-2 vaccine and measles vaccine at the same time are protected against these diseases at the same level as those who receive the vaccines at different intervals.
Japanese encephalitis is the leading cause of viral neurological disease and disability in Asia. The severity of sequelae, together with the volume of cases, make JE the most important cause of viral encephalitis in the world. Approximately 3 billion people—including 700 million children—live in Asian areas at risk for JE. JE most commonly infects children between the ages of 1 and 15 years, and can also infect adults in areas where the virus is newly introduced. More than 50,000 cases are reported annually and cause an estimated 10,000 to 15,000 deaths. This figure is believed to represent only a small proportion of the disease burden that actually exists.
An effective vaccine has existed since 1941, but has not reached the poorest countries in Asia. During the 60 years that the vaccine has been available, JE has infected an estimated 10.5 million children, resulting in more than 3 million deaths and more than 4 million children living with long-term disabilities. Control of this disease has been limited due to poor disease surveillance, a limited and unstable vaccine supply, lack of guidance and programmatic support for immunization, and limited advocacy.
A successful vaccine should be safe, efficacious, affordable, administered in a single dose, and easily incorporated into the routine Expanded Programmes on Immunization (EPI) programs. This study will help ensure the safety of SA 14-14-2 simultaneously administered with measles vaccine, paving the way for its use in routine EPI programs. If this candidate becomes widely available, it will drastically increase the feasibility of routine JE immunization in Asia, reducing the devastating death and disability caused by this disease. In addition to impacting low-income countries, the vaccine will allow countries that purchase vaccine—such as Thailand, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, and India—to recover health care dollars, improve their present programs, and address other unmet health care needs.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Uncontrolled, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Prevention
Encephalitis, Japanese B
Japanese Encephalitis Live Attenuated SA 14-14-2 Vaccine
Research Institute for Tropical Medicine
Program for Appropriate Technology in Health
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00249769
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Encephalitis Virus, Murray Valley
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
Encephalitis Virus, Japanese
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
Encephalitis Viruses, Japanese
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
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