Childhood Hypertonia of Central Origin: A Trial of Anticholinergic Treatment Effects
This study is an open-label trial of trihexyphenidyl in children with upper extremity dystonia due to cerebral palsy. It is hypothesized that trihexyphenidyl in doses up to 0.75mg/kg/day would be well-tolerated and show significant changes on the Melbourne scale of upper extremity function.
BACKGROUND: Although trihexyphenidyl has been used to treat both primary and secondary dystonia in children, previous studies have not investigated efficacy in secondary dystonia. We describe the results of a prospective, open-label, multi-center trial of high-dose trihexyphenidyl in children with secondary dystonia of the arms due to cerebral palsy.
METHODS: Twenty-six children age 4-15 years with cerebral palsy and dystonia that impairs function of the dominant upper extremity were enrolled. All children were given trihexyphenidyl at increasing doses over 9 weeks up to 0.75mg/kg/day. Trihexyphenidyl was subsequently tapered over 5 weeks. Visits occurred at baseline, 9 weeks, and 15 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Melbourne assessment of upper extremity function, tested in the dominant arm.
RESULTS: Three children withdrew due to non-serious adverse events (chorea, drug rash, hyperactivity). 3 children reduced dosage due to non-serious adverse events. The 23 children who completed the study showed a significant improvement in arm function at 15 weeks (p=0.045) but not at 9 weeks. Post-hoc analysis showed that a subgroup (N=10) with hyperkinetic dystonia worsened at 9 weeks (p=0.04) but subsequently returned to baseline following taper of the medicine.
CONCLUSIONS: Trihexyphenidyl appears to be safe and effective for treatment of arm dystonia in children with cerebral palsy. Children with hyperkinetic dystonia may worsen. A larger randomized prospective trial is needed to confirm these results.
Allocation: Non-Randomized, Control: Uncontrolled, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
University of Alabama School of Medicine
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00122044
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.
An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)
Dystonia Musculorum Deformans
A condition characterized by focal DYSTONIA that progresses to involuntary spasmodic contractions of the muscles of the legs, trunk, arms, and face. The hands are often spared, however, sustained axial and limb contractions may lead to a state where the body is grossly contorted. Onset is usually in the first or second decade. Familial patterns of inheritance, primarily autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance, have been identified. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1078)
One of the centrally acting MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS used for treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and drug-induced extrapyramidal movement disorders and as an antispasmodic.
A syndrome characterized by orofacial DYSTONIA; including BLEPHAROSPASM; forceful jaw opening; lip retraction; platysma muscle spasm; and tongue protrusion. It primarily affects older adults, with an incidence peak in the seventh decade of life. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p108)
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