Field Evaluation of Plant-Based Mosquito Control
Isolated minority communities in China use traditional plant-based methods of mosquito control. This study is evaluating 4 plants used in this way by monitoring mosquitoes entering houses on nights when the plants are being used in this way. A blind, placebo controlled study design will monitor plant use and record mosquito species / numbers caught in CDC light traps indoors over 3 months.
One of the greatest challenges to those planning vector control programmes in developing Countries is the provision of cover to those populations in remote or isolated areas. Commonly, it is these communities which bear the greatest burden of disease due to location and inaccessibility to local health care. Yunnan Province is a good example of such problems. The border region with Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam contributes a high proportion of all malaria cases in the whole of China, yet few if any disease control initiatives cover the rural minority peoples and migrant workers who inhabit the region. Comprehensive ethnobotanical surveys in the area have shown many of the 25 minority peoples living in isolated communities already use traditional herbal forms of mosquito control utilising several of the abundant species in the particularly diverse local environment. Having identified a number of potentially useful plant species being used, in terms of their availability, sustainability, low cost (free) and known chemical constituents, the investigators and the local Chinese malaria control officials consider a phase II evaluation of the most promising candidates is justified. In particular, 4 widely used plants are traditionally used as fumigants to reduce / prevent mosquitoes entering houses, either by burning dried or fresh material on the indoor cooking fires each evening, or by spraying tinctures around entry sites like eaves & windows. Due to the method of use, it would be very difficult to simulate this in the laboratory, so a simple means of field evaluation has been chosen.
The ethnobotanical survey revealed the following plant species as candidates for further study; Artemesia argyi, Eucalyptus robusta, Eupatorium odoratum, Cinnamomum glanduliferum
Each of these plant species occurs naturally in abundance in the region and collection will have no significant environmental impact. Moderate amounts (approx 1 Kg) sufficient for each study will be collected locally in each field site prior to (if used dried) or at the start of each experiment (fresh).
Plants will be evaluated under natural user conditions in a randomised and controlled manner in villages in Xishuangbanna Region, Yunnan, PR China. Village- based studies of several other mosquito control methods have already been successfully undertaken in this region by the LSHTM and YIPD team. Villages belonging to one of the ethnic groups using each traditional method will be selected according to agreement between local health workers from YIPD and the village elders, availability of plant species, and preliminary survey of vector species collected indoors with CDC traps. A different village will be selected for each plant being evaluated. After collecting background entomological data, 6 houses matched for baseline parameters (such as occupancy level, location, construction & animal proximity) and being evenly spaced among others in the village (to reduce diversion effects) will be enrolled into the study. On any one night, 2 will be allocated treatment (use of plant), 2 will be allocated hay (used for cattle bedding) as a negative control, and 2 will be left unused (to reduce any residual effects). In each case the treatment or control group will be instructed to place pre-prepared batches of plant material (weighed fresh or dry depending upon type) onto their cooking fire in the traditional manner in the early evening. Commercial CDC traps (BioQuip Inc., USA) will be used in / beside the sleeping areas of each house from 1 hour before sunset to early morning. Catches will be identified by local vector experts each day to record species and number. House treatment will be rotated each night using latin square principles to achieve a minimum of 12 replicates of each treatment in every house (36 nights duration, 216 trap/nights), and will take place during the rainy (malaria) season (July – Nov 2005) when both plants and vector levels are highest.
In the case of C. glanduliferum, the plant extract (or hay extract) will be sprayed at a predetermined rate onto eaves & doors / windows in the traditional manner following the same principles. Efficacy will be determined by comparing mosquito species / numbers caught in control & treatment houses using appropriate statistical analysis & ANOVA methodologies.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Placebo Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Single Blind, Primary Purpose: Prevention
anti-mosquito plant use
Yunnun Institute of Parasitic diseases
Gates Malaria Partnership
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00116766
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A protozoan parasite that causes avian malaria (MALARIA, AVIAN), primarily in chickens, and is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
This is a study of the genetics of malaria transmission by the mosquito vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae. The study focuses on the mosquito vector, not the human subjects infected with...
The combined use of a mosquito repellent and long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) by household members would result in a 40% reduction in malaria prevalence compared with households that...
Although mosquito coils are widely used, there is no robust evidence that their use can provide clinical reduction in malaria. This study will randomise 4 groups of 400 houses, each with...
The purpose of this study is to determine how many infected mosquito bites are required to reliably give volunteers a case of malaria. It is expected that volunteers will develop malaria a...
The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the use of (1) 'malaria prevalence', (2) 'malaria incidence' and (3) 'malaria mortality' as a measure of malaria transmission in The Gambia,...
Malaria parasite transmission depends on the successful transition of Plasmodium through discrete developmental stages in the lumen of the mosquito midgut. Like the human intestinal tract, the mosquit...
A critical stage in malaria transmission occurs in the Anopheles mosquito midgut, when the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, ingested with blood, first makes contact with the gut epithelial surface. To un...
When taking a blood meal on a person infected with malaria, female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, the major vector of human malaria, acquire nutrients that will activate egg development (oogenesis) in...
Plasmodium falciparum transmission by Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes is remarkably efficient, resulting in a very high prevalence of human malaria infection in sub-Saharan Africa. A combination of genet...
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Malaria is a serious public health problem in Indonesia, particularly in areas outside Java and Bali. The spread of resistance to the currently available anti-malarial drugs or i...