Anti-HIV Drug Regimens With or Without Protease Inhibitors and Drug Level Monitoring in HIV Infected Adolescents
The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of anti-HIV drug regimens with or without a protease inhibitor (PI) in HIV infected adolescents. It will also determine if monitoring drug levels and adjusting the dose as necessary improves the effectiveness of these regimens.
HIV infected adolescents may have a significantly higher capacity for immune reconstitution following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared to adults. Despite this advantage, HIV infected adolescents are often reluctant to get proper medical care, follow through with doctor appointments, and adhere to medication schedules and regimens necessary to keep their infection under control. Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), a PI, and efavirenz (EFV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), both have long half-lives that make them ideal drugs for the adolescent population, as they are more forgiving if patients miss or sleep through doses. The availability of once-daily dosing of LPV/r will reduce pill burden and offers more flexibility in medication scheduling, also helping to promote treatment adherence among this age group. This study will examine the effectiveness of two HAART regimens, one with the PI LPV/r and two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), and the other with the NNRTI EFV and two NRTIs. The efficacy of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and subsequent dose adjustment will also be assessed with both regimens.
Patients will be enrolled in this study for 96 weeks and will be randomly assigned into one of two groups. Group 1 will receive LPV/r and 2 NRTIs. Treatment naive patients in Group 1 will have the option of receiving either once-daily dosing or twice-daily dosing of LPV/r. Treatment experienced patients will receive twice-daily dosing of LPV/r. Patients on once-daily dosing of LPV/r who become intolerant to the regimen will be permitted to switch to twice-daily dosing. Group 2 will receive EFV and 2 NRTIs. All patients will be independently and simultaneously randomly assigned to undergo either TDM with subsequent dose adjustment if necessary or no TDM.
Patient medical history and physical exam will be conducted at screening, entry, Weeks 2, 4, 8, every 8 weeks until Week 48, and every 12 weeks thereafter. Blood collection will occur at all study visits. Self-reported pill counts and MEMS TrackCap readings (on LPV/r and EFV bottles) will be noted at most visits. Patients will be asked to complete adherence questionnaires at selected study visits.
Patients enrolled in PACTG 390 (Different Combination Regimens and Treatment-Switching Guidelines in HIV Infected Children 18 Years of Age and Younger) are encouraged to coenroll simultaneously in this study and in PACTG 219C (Long-Term Effects of HIV Exposure and Infection in Children).
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Efavirenz + 2 NRTIs, Lopinavir/Ritonavir + 2 NRTIs, Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Phoenix Children's Hospital
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00075907
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Measurable biological parameters that serve for drug development, safety and dosing (DRUG MONITORING).
Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.
An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV.
The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
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