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Although once protected from cardiovascular disease (CVD), American Indians now have incidence rates higher than the general US population. The majority of CVD cases occur in individuals with diabetes. It is therefore imperative that intervention strategies to reduce CVD in diabetic individuals be developed and validated in this population.
The randomized three year trial examines the effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) of intensive LDL reduction (goal less than or equal to75 mg/dL) and intensive blood pressure lowering (goal less than or equal to 115/75 mmHg), compared to usual targets of less than or equal to 100 mg/dL and less than or equal to 130/85 mmHg. These cutpoints were chosen because mean LDL and blood pressure levels are lower in this population, but there is a strong relation between LDL, blood pressure, and CVD at levels below current targets. The primary endpoint will be carotid intimal-medial thickness. Secondary endpoints will include cardiac function measures by echocardiography, lipoproteins, albuminuria, and C-reactive protein (CRP). The study will enroll 488 diabetic American Indian men and women more than 40 years of age and will be conducted in four field centers involving Indian Health/Tribal primary care facilities in Phoenix/Sacaton, Arizona; Chinle, Arizona; Rapid City/Pine Ridge, South Dakota; and Lawton, Oklahoma, with input from American Indian physicians and community members. Study results will provide evidence needed to develop community-based programs to treat and prevent the epidemic of CVD among American Indians. The data will also be valuable in understanding the effects of intensive risk-factor reduction on atherosclerosis burden and cardiac function in diabetic individuals in all US populations and provide evidence for determining LDL and blood pressure treatment goals for diabetic patients.
Allocation: Randomized, Primary Purpose: Prevention
simvastatin, ACE inhibitors
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:55:45-0400
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One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors), orally active, that has been used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.
One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors) used for hypertension. It is a prodrug that is hydrolyzed after absorption to its main metabolite cilazaprilat.
A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.
Cholesterol is a waxy steroid metabolite found in the cell membranes and transported in the blood plasma. It is an important structural component of mammalian cell membranes, where it is establishes proper membrane permeability and fluidity. Cholesterol ...
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) Blood Cardiovascular Dialysis Hypertension Stent Stroke Vascular Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes all the diseases of the heart and circulation including coronary heart disease (angina...