Evaluation of Clonazepam and Paroxetine for Panic Disorder With Depression
The purpose of this study is to examine the safety and effectiveness of the drug combination paroxetine and clonazepam in treating people with panic disorder (PD) and major depression.
The main goal in treating people with PD is to rapidly reduce symptom severity and improve functioning. While numerous drug therapies have been used to treat PD, these treatments are limited by variable response rates and suboptimal side effect profiles. Evidence suggests that clonazepam given with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) can facilitate a rapid reduction in PD symptoms. However, it is unclear whether comorbid depression influences treatment response to the clonazepam and SSRI regimen. This study will examine whether combined treatment with clonazepam and the SSRI paroxetine will accelerate clinical response in participants with PD and comorbid depression. This study will also examine whether the benefits of treatment will be sustained until the end of the study despite tapering of clonazepam at the midpoint of the study.
Participants in this study will be screened with medical and psychiatric interviews, a physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), and blood tests. Participants will then be randomly assigned to receive either paroxetine plus clonazepam or paroxetine plus placebo (an inactive pill) for 12 weeks. Participants will have weekly clinic visits during which symptoms and drug side effects will be checked and an interview to evaluate panic disorder and depression symptoms will be conducted.
The main goal of treatment in patients with Panic Disorder (PD) is to effect a rapid reduction in symptom severity and improve functioning. While numerous pharmacological approaches have been used to treat PD, these treatments are limited by variable response rates, up to a 6-week lag period prior to the onset of clinical response, and sub-optimal side effect profile, including possible worsening of anxiety and insomnia.
There is recent evidence that the benzodiazepine clonazepam prescribed with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) can facilitate a rapid reduction of symptoms in PD. The improvement in symptoms was maintained despite tapering the clonazepam prior to the end of the study. However, it was unclear if co-morbid depression influenced the treatment response to this regimen. In addition, a recent study in patients with major depression demonstrated that combined fluoxetine-clonazepam treatment resulted in a more rapid antidepressant response than the fluoxetine-placebo combination.
The proposed study will examine whether combined treatment with a clonazepam and paroxetine in patients with PD and comorbid depression will accelerate the onset of clinical response at both panic and depression symptoms. PD with comorbid major depression is a more severe disorder than PD alone. We will also examine whether the rapid and clinically meaningful benefits will be sustained until the end of the study, despite tapering off clonazepam at the midpoint of the study. If this study turns out to be the case combined SSRI-benzodiazepine treatment may become a standard initial therapeutic approach to PD and comorbid major depression.
Primary Purpose: Treatment
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00031317
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.
An MAO inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in the treatment of panic disorder and the phobic disorders. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)
A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.
A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.
A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)
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