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This study will collect brain tissue samples for research purposes from patients undergoing surgery to treat epilepsy. The standard surgical procedure for medically intractable epilepsy-i.e., epilepsy that cannot be controlled with medicine-requires removal of more brain tissue than is needed for diagnostic study. This extra tissue, which would otherwise be discarded, will be used for research purposes. In addition, a blood vessel in the scalp, called the superficial temporal artery, is also normally cut during surgery, and a piece of this vessel will be taken for research use.
Patients 4 years of age or older who undergo surgery for medically intractable epilepsy may be eligible for this study.
Brain tissue collected under this protocol will be used for studies of brain cells in other diseases and of serotonin receptors. Any remaining brain tissue will be frozen for use in future research. The superficial temporal artery will be used for comparison with carotid arteries (a neck artery that supplies the brain) from patients with blockage of this blood vessel.
This is a protocol to perform research studies on tissues that are removed in the operating room during surgical procedures for medically intractable epilepsy. Our hypothesis is that we can acquire and supply useful tissue specimens for intramural NIH research projects.
The investigators will be free to select which patients will undergo surgery. However, the total number of patients that can be enrolled in the protocol will be restricted. This protocol is not designed to test any new treatments. Any treatment under this protocol will be based on the current standard of care for epilepsy surgery. The goal of the surgical procedure is to remove the epileptic focus. Standard procedures to be performed are 1) anterior temporal lobectomy or 2) amygdalohippocampectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy, and 3) focal cortical resection for epilepsy that arises outside the temporal lobe. These are the research aspects of the protocol: 1) Any brain tissue that is removed and is not required for diagnostic studies will be used for laboratory studies, consistent with institutional guidelines. 2) Blood tests to test for immune and inflammatory mediators will be performed. In this study superficial temporal artery and scalp tissue biopsies have been taken to obtain control tissue for in vitro experiments of gene expression in vascular disease and of immune-mediated alopecia. Biopsy of the superficial temporal artery and scalp is no longer performed in this protocol because a sufficient number of these specimens has already been obtained for these experiments.
Participants in this protocol will be evaluated for potential eligibility for other NINDS clinical trials as they are developed. However, they will not be required to enter any protocol and their decision to participate will be entirely voluntary. No more than 60 patients will be accepted in this protocol.
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
OBJECTIVES: I. Determine the chromosomal regions that contain genes that raise the risk of epilepsy in families by performing genetic linkage analysis of idiopathic/cryptogenic epilepsy.
The purpose of this research is to study the safety and effectiveness of electrical stimulation to treat uncontrolled seizures in adults with epilepsy.
The purpose of this study is to collect detailed information about the characteristics and genetics of a large number of individuals with epilepsy.
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Rolandic Epilepsy is the most common form of childhood epilepsy. It is classified as idiopathic, age-related epilepsy syndrome with benign evolution. The absence of neuropsychological impa...
Japan is experiencing an increase in the number of patients with dementia, and the incidence of epilepsy is high among the elderly. A survey of patients with epilepsy who were admitted to our hospital...
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In 2014, the definition of epilepsy was revised by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE).
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Sleep and epilepsy are common bedfellows. Sleep can affect frequency and occurrence of interictal spikes and occurrence, timing, and threshold of seizure. Epilepsy can worsen sleep architecture and se...
A disorder characterized by the onset of myoclonus in adolescence, a marked increase in the incidence of absence seizures (see EPILEPSY, ABSENCE), and generalized major motor seizures (see EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). The myoclonic episodes tend to occur shortly after awakening. Seizures tend to be aggravated by sleep deprivation and alcohol consumption. Hereditary and sporadic forms have been identified. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p323)
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
An anticonvulsant effective in tonic-clonic epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). It may cause blood dyscrasias.
An autosomal dominant inherited partial epilepsy syndrome with onset between age 3 and 13 years. Seizures are characterized by PARESTHESIA and tonic or clonic activity of the lower face associated with drooling and dysarthria. In most cases, affected children are neurologically and developmentally normal. (From Epilepsia 1998 39;Suppl 4:S32-S41)
A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)
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Epilepsy is defined as a disorder of brain function characterized by recurrent seizures that have a sudden onset. (Oxford Medical Dictionary). A seizure is caused by a sudden burst of excess electrical activity in the brain, causing a tempora...