Natural History of Salivary Gland Dysfunction and Sjogren's Syndrome
This study will follow patients with salivary gland dysfunction to identify the long-term course of this disorder and its effects on the mouth, oral function, and overall health. Saliva is important in maintaining oral health and comfort. It moistens the mouth, lubricates food for easier swallowing, provides enzymes needed to begin the digestive process and promotes repair and cleansing of soft tissues of the mouth. Decreased salivary production or changes in salivary composition may affect oral and systemic health and cause an increase in tooth decay.
Patients 4 years of age and older with dry mouth symptoms and a diagnosis of primary, secondary or incomplete Sjogren's syndrome or salivary gland dysfunction due to radiation may be eligible for this study. Candidates will be screened with a complete medical and dental history and blood and saliva tests. Some patients will have a biopsy of the minor salivary glands, usually from the lower lip, to confirm or rule out the diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome and determine the extent of changes in the salivary glands. (A biopsy is the surgical removal of a small piece of tissue for laboratory examination.) The ability to taste and smell may also be evaluated, and patients may have an ultrasound examination of their swallowing function.
Participants will have a general oral examination of the teeth and soft tissues of the mouth, general physical examination, eye examination and blood tests and will fill out a questionnaire on oral health and function. In addition, they will have the following tests and procedures:
- Identification of possible fungal infection - Patients rinse their mouth with 2 teaspoons of a salt-water solution and spit it in a sterile container for laboratory examination. If a fungal infection is detected, treatment will be offered.
- Unstimulated salivary function assessment - Saliva production is measured by collecting saliva samples through small suction cups connected to collection tubes over the salivary gland ducts in the mouth.
- Stimulated salivary function assessment - A sour-tasting liquid (2% citric acid) is applied to the top and sides of the tongue at 30-second intervals to stimulation saliva production while saliva is collected using the procedure described above.
- Identification of markers of precancerous lesions - The salivary gland biopsy done at the screening evaluation (or from outside sources) is examined for markers of precancerous lesions, as about 5 percent of patients with Sjogren's syndrome develop a tumor called Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In some cases, the minor salivary glands may be re-biopsied a few years after the screening biopsy.
Patients will be followed once a year with a comprehensive history and physical examination, eye examination, full oral examination, salivary function assessment and questionnaires about signs and symptoms of salivary gland dysfunction.
Saliva plays a major role in maintaining oral health and comfort. Saliva is needed to moisten the mouth, to lubricate food for easier swallowing, to protect oral hard and soft tissues, to modulate oral microbial populations, to provide enzymes necessary to begin food breakdown for digestion, and to promote soft tissue repair and oral cleansing. Therefore, salivary dysfunction may result in numerous clinical conditions affecting oral and systemic health, comfort and quality of life. In particular, we will focus on individuals with Sjogren's syndrome, an autoimmune exocrinopathy that primarily affects the salivary and lacrimal glands. A number of unanswered questions remain concerning salivary involvement in this disorder. These include the rate of progression of secretory dysfunction, and related oral and systemic complications associated with xerostomia in autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases, and B-cell dysregulation. Also, more precise estimates of the incidence of the lymphoma development are needed.
The purpose of this study is : 1) to allow careful follow-up of patients with defined salivary gland alterations so that the long term course and effects of Sjogren's syndrome (SS) on the oral cavity and systemic health in SS may be delineated; 2) to follow the development and progression of B-cell dysregulation in SS; 3) to follow subjects to establish whether those initially manifesting incomplete criteria for SS progress toward fully meeting the criteria.; 4) to refine diagnostic tests for SS, and to determine whether those subjects who meet the criteria for SS continue to do so; and 5) to develop intermediary outcome measures for SS based on long term outcomes (loss of tears and loss of stimulated salivary flow).
Patients will return every two years from the baseline visit for a full oral examination, salivary function assessment, clinical laboratory studies, and questionnaires concerning signs and symptoms of salivary gland dysfunction. These individuals will be patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS), incomplete SS (patients who have some, but not all of the criteria for SS) or radiation-induced salivary gland hypofunction. We anticipate that many of these patients will also participate in therapeutic trials conducted within the branch.
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00001852
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.
Precursor T-cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-lymphoma
A leukemia/lymphoma found predominately in children and young adults and characterized LYMPHADENOPATHY and THYMUS GLAND involvement. It most frequently presents as a lymphoma, but a leukemic progression in the bone marrow is common.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Two or more distinct types of malignant lymphoid tumors occurring within a single organ or tissue at the same time. It may contain different types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma cells or both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma cells.
Lymphoma, Large-cell, Anaplastic
A systemic, large-cell, non-Hodgkin, malignant lymphoma characterized by cells with pleomorphic appearance and expressing the CD30 ANTIGEN. These so-called "hallmark" cells have lobulated and indented nuclei. This lymphoma is often mistaken for metastatic carcinoma and MALIGNANT HISTIOCYTOSIS.
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