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This protocol offers diagnosis and standard medical treatment for various parasitic gastrointestinal infections. Gastrointestinal parasites are either worms (helminths) or one-celled animals called protozoans which live in the human intestines. Often, parasitic infections do not cause illness. In these cases, drug treatment is not indicated, because treatment can have adverse side effects. Patients will be examined for their immune responses, correlation between the number of parasites and disease, and other studies.
Individuals with known or suspected parasitic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including amebiasis, giardiasis, hookworm, strongyloidiasis, trichuriasis, pinworm, tapeworm, trichinosis, clonorchis, opisthorchis, coccidiosis, paragonimiasis, and echinococcus may be eligible for this study.
Patient evaluations may include blood and urine tests, stool examination, X-rays, ultrasound studies and, uncommonly, duodenal aspiration for examination of fluid from the duodenum (first part of the small intestine). Other tests may be required, depending on the parasite and disease. Direct examination of the tissues of the intestines may be required to rule out certain infections.
Research procedures include collection of stool, blood and duodenal fluid when the diagnosis has been established and these procedures are not required for medical care. Patients with strongyloidiasis may also be given a diagnostic skin test similar to skin tests for tuberculosis and allergies. Research procedures on children will be limited to collection of stool, urine and blood. No more than 7 milliliters (1 1/2 teaspoons) per kilogram (2.2 pounds) body weight of blood will be collected in children over a 6-week period. In adults no more than 30 tablespoons of blood will be collected in a 6-week period.
Parasites may fail to respond to treatment. In these cases, it may be necessary to grow the parasite in the laboratory in order to test treatments in the test tube. Patients who do not respond to standard medications and dosing may need different doses of drugs or drugs or combinations of drugs used in the United States for other medical problems. If these medications or doses are used, patients will be informed of their possible side effects.
The precis of this protocol is to allow the evaluation, treatment and study of patients with a variety of gastrointestinal parasites. This protocol primarily allows evaluation and treatment of patients with any intestinal parasite that requires a medical evaluation. The treatment and evaluation consists of the normal and usual medical care. Research aspects include the collection and study of different parasite populations, analysis of the immune responses of the host, a correlation between parasite burden in the host and disease. These patients also serve as a source of reagents such as feces, white blood cells, and serum. The off-label use of FDA approved drugs is employed to treat symptomatic giardiasis in patients who cannot be cured otherwise and to determine empirically which regimens are effective and safe.
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of nitazoxanide suspension in treating diarrhea caused by Entamoeba histolytica in children.
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of nitazoxanide tablets in treating diarrhea caused by Entamoeba histolytica in adults and adolescents.
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Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) is an extracellular protozoan parasite of humans that invades the colon to cause life-threatening intestinal and extra-intestinal amebiasis. Colonized Eh is asymptomatic, ho...
Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis in humans and is responsible for 100,000 deaths annually, making it the third leading cause of death due to a protozoan parasite. Pathogenesis...
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Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
Single or multiple areas of PUS due to infection by any ameboid protozoa (AMEBIASIS). A common form is caused by the ingestion of ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.
8-Hydroxyquinolinols chlorinated on the number 5 and/or 7 carbon atom(s). They are antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and antidiarrheal, especially in amebiasis, and have also been used as antiseborrheics. The compounds are mostly used topically, but have been used also as animal feed additives. They may cause optic and other neuropathies and are most frequently administered in combination with other agents.
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
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