Comparison of Trimetrexate Plus Leucovorin Calcium Rescue Versus Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim in the Treatment of Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP) in Patients With AIDS
To compare the safety and effectiveness of an investigational drug therapy (trimetrexate plus leucovorin calcium) with that of conventional therapy (sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim) in the treatment of moderately severe Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in patients who have AIDS, are HIV positive, or are at high risk for HIV infection.
New treatments are needed to reduce the mortality rate from PCP in AIDS patients and to reduce the high relapse rate found after conventional therapy. Trimetrexate (TMTX) was chosen for this trial because it was found to be much more potent than sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMX/TMP) against the PCP organism in laboratory tests. Also TMTX, in combination with leucovorin (LCV), did not cause severe toxicity in a preliminary trial. It is believed that TMTX will be more effective than SMX/TMP in treating PCP and in preventing a recurrence of PCP. Preliminary studies suggest that aerosolized pentamidine (PEN) is likely to be effective in preventing a recurrence of PCP.
Patients entered in the study are randomly assigned to TMTX / LCV or to SMX/TMP for a 21-day trial. For the first 10 days, the trial is double-blind (neither patient nor physician knows which drugs the patient is receiving), and drugs are given by intravenous infusion. TMTX is given once every 24 hours and LCV every 6 hours; SMX/TMP is given every 6 hours. Doses are determined by body size. After the first 10 days, LCV and SMX/TMP may be given orally. Doses are adjusted or treatment is changed to intravenous PEN if side effects are too severe. During the 21-day trial, zidovudine (AZT) may not be used because of possible increased bone marrow toxicity. AZT may be resumed as soon as the patient's white cell count is acceptable. Aerosolized PEN therapy is begun 7 - 10 days after completion of therapy for the acute episode. PEN is inhaled once weekly for 4 weeks, then every 2 weeks for 48 weeks.
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Pneumonia, Pneumocystis Carinii
Trimetrexate glucuronate, Pentamidine isethionate, Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim, Leucovorin calcium
Los Angeles County - USC Med Ctr
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00001013
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. The interference with folic acid metabolism may cause a depression of hematopoiesis. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.
The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as its calcium salt as an antidote to folic acid antagonists which block the conversion of folic acid to folinic acid.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TRIMETHOPRIM.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
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