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Prophylaxis Against Tuberculosis (TB) in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and Suspected Latent Tuberculous Infection

2014-08-27 03:59:50 | BioPortfolio

Summary

To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a 6-month course of isoniazid ( INH ) in the prevention of clinical tuberculosis in anergic (having diminished or absent reactions to specific antigens) HIV-infected persons who are at high risk for tuberculous infection.

A substantial number of HIV-infected persons are anergic, and thus do not respond to the only currently available diagnostic tool for tuberculosis infection (that is, the PPD (purified protein derivative) skin test). Many of these anergic persons are, however, infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and eventually develop reactivation tuberculosis, causing both individual illness and spread of infection to others in the community. This study examines the possibility of using INH prophylaxis (that is, for prevention) in anergic HIV-infected patients at high risk for tuberculosis as a means of decreasing the sharp rise in the incidence of tuberculosis due to HIV infection. INH is inexpensive and relatively safe, and thus may demonstrate an acceptable risk/benefit ratio as a medication that can be given over a limited period of time to a population suspected of having, but not proved to have, M. tuberculosis infection. If this study shows INH to be safe and effective in this setting, it could have a major effect on public health in this country.

Description

A substantial number of HIV-infected persons are anergic, and thus do not respond to the only currently available diagnostic tool for tuberculosis infection (that is, the PPD (purified protein derivative) skin test). Many of these anergic persons are, however, infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and eventually develop reactivation tuberculosis, causing both individual illness and spread of infection to others in the community. This study examines the possibility of using INH prophylaxis (that is, for prevention) in anergic HIV-infected patients at high risk for tuberculosis as a means of decreasing the sharp rise in the incidence of tuberculosis due to HIV infection. INH is inexpensive and relatively safe, and thus may demonstrate an acceptable risk/benefit ratio as a medication that can be given over a limited period of time to a population suspected of having, but not proved to have, M. tuberculosis infection. If this study shows INH to be safe and effective in this setting, it could have a major effect on public health in this country.

Patients are placed by a random selection process in either the INH or placebo group. One group receives INH plus pyridoxine hydrochloride ( vitamin B6 ) daily for six months. Patients in the other group receive placebo plus vitamin B6 daily for six months.

Study Design

Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Conditions

HIV Infections

Intervention

Isoniazid, Pyridoxine hydrochloride

Location

UCLA Med Ctr
Los Angeles
California
United States
90095

Status

Active, not recruiting

Source

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:59:50-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

An enzyme catalyzing the deamination of pyridoxaminephosphate to pyridoxal phosphate. It is a flavoprotein that also oxidizes pyridoxine-5-phosphate and pyridoxine. EC 1.4.3.5.

The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).

Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.

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Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)

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