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This study is designed to test the clinical and laboratory observations that suggest IVIG given before and after kidney transplant to patients who are sensitized (highly sensitive) to certain transplant antigens could result in reduced sensitization and reduced rates of kidney rejection.
Some ESRD patients are highly sensitive to certain transplant antigens (foreign substances that activate the immune system) and must wait for a long time before a well-matched kidney becomes available. Transplant rejection is more likely among highly sensitized patients than in patients who are not highly sensitized. There is no proven method to improve a highly-sensitized patient's chances of receiving and keeping a transplanted kidney.
Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, many patients do not receive this treatment due to immune sensitization to HLA antigens. IVIG has been shown to somewhat reduce anti-HLA antibody activity. By blocking this activity, IVIG may make transplants more feasible and increase graft survival in transplant recipients.
Patients are randomized to receive IV infusion of either 2 g/kg (maximum dose 180 g) IVIG 10% S/D (Gamimune-N, 10%, manufactured by Bayer) or placebo (0.1% human albumin, manufactured by Bayer) at time of dialysis at study entry and monthly for 3 months. If patients have not received a transplant at 1 year, they receive a "booster" dose of IVIG or placebo; patients receive another booster at 24 months if transplant still has not occurred. If transplant occurs, patients receive 2 g/kg (up to 180 g) IVIG or placebo monthly for 4 months, beginning at time of transplant. Before and after initiation of IVIG/albumin placebo treatment, specific immune parameters, including panel reactive antibodies (PRA) levels, MLR, serum inhibition of MLR, and cytokine gene transcription in the MLR, and AECA levels are measured. Outcomes studied include time on dialysis and graft survival rates.
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Primary Purpose: Treatment
End-Stage Renal Disease
Intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), 0.1% human albumin
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:59:50-0400
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A condition in which albumin level in blood (SERUM ALBUMIN) is below the normal range. Hypoalbuminemia may be due to decreased hepatic albumin synthesis, increased albumin catabolism, altered albumin distribution, or albumin loss through the urine (ALBUMINURIA).
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Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)
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