The Lunch Study: the Combined Effects of Food Texture and Energy Density on Intake

2016-12-01 16:08:22 | BioPortfolio


Meal size is strongly influenced by a number of external features of the food environment which can promote over-consumption, such as the availability of palatable energy dense foods. The current research aimed to investigate whether natural food-based differences in texture could be used to slow down eating rate and reduce intake from large portions and higher energy dense foods.

A four-session randomised crossover study assessed the effect of faster vs. slower eating rate, achieved through manipulating food texture, on ad-libitum consumption (weight and calories) at a meal, alone and in combination with variations in meal energy-density (higher vs. lower)


The current obesogenic environment is characterized by the abundance of palatable and high energy dense foods. High dietary energy density can promote sustained overcompensation at meal times. On the other hand, eating at a slower rate has been shown to reduce meal size, and food-based texture differences can slow eating rate. It is possible that texture-based differences in eating rate could be used to reduce energy intake in of foods that are higher in energy density.

This study was conducted to quantify the effect of eating rate (fast vs. slow) on ad-libitum consumption of a meal, alone and in combination with variations in meal energy-density (0.57 kcal/g vs 1.01 kcal/g). The meal combinations were as follows:

Meal 1: thin/0.57 kcal; Meal 2: thin/1.01 kcal/g; Meal 3: thick/ 0.57 kcal/g; Meal 4: thick /1.01 kcal/g

Participants consumed the four test meals over four non-consecutive test sessions at the Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, with at least three days washout between each session. Each part followed a completely randomised full crossover design.

The primary objective was to assess ad libitum intake (both kcal and g) of the test meals, depending on the combination of food texture and energy density.

The secondary objectives were to assess the eating rate, oral processing characteristics, changes in rated appetite up to 90 minutes post-consumption and energy intake (kcal) for the rest of the test day (food diary), as a function of the test meal texture and energy density

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment, Masking: Single Blind (Subject), Primary Purpose: Basic Science




Thin/Low Energy, Thin/High Energy, Thick/Low Energy, Thick/High Energy


Clinical Nutrition Research Centre




Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore

Results (where available)

View Results


Published on BioPortfolio: 2016-12-01T16:08:22-0500

Clinical Trials [1916 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Thin Wire Versus Thick Wire Snare for Cold Snare Polypectomy of Diminutive Polyps

Cold snare polypectomy (CSP) is now common practice and has proven to be a safe and effective technique for removal of diminutive polyps. Both thick and thin wire snares are now commonly u...

The Lunch Study: the Combined Effects of Food Texture and Portion Size on Intake

Meal size is strongly influenced by a number of external features of the food environment which can promote over-consumption, such as the availability of palatable energy dense foods and l...

A Clinical Trial Testing Root Coverage With Acellular Dermal Matrix in Thin and Thick Gingival Biotypes

Gingival recession is a common defect among the American population. It is also a major cause for root decay, hypersensitivity, contributes to tooth mobility and low self-esteem. Acellular...

Reducing Energy Density by Different Methods to Decrease Energy Intake

The purpose of this research is to investigate how using different methods to reduce the energy density of entrees affects daily energy intake in adults. It is hypothesized that reducing t...

High Low Biphasic Energy Defibrillation (HiLoBED)

This inhospital study aims to compare the efficacy of high-versus low-energy biphasic shocks in order to determine the optimal level for defibrillation. Time is the essence when attending ...

PubMed Articles [21003 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Thin HSIL of the Cervix: Detecting a Variant of High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions With a p16INK4a Antibody.

The WHO defines thin high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) as a high-grade intraepithelial lesion of the cervix that is usually ≤9 cells thick. These lesions usually develop in early me...

High-resolution, large dynamic range fiber-optic thermometer with cascaded Fabry-Perot cavities.

The paradox between a large dynamic range and a high resolution commonly exists in nearly all kinds of sensors. Here, we propose a fiber-optic thermometer based on dual Fabry-Perot interferometers (FP...

Spherical aberration in electrically thin flat lenses.

We analyze the spherical aberration of a new generation of lenses made of flat electrically thin inhomogeneous media. For such lenses, spherical aberration is analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively...

Effect of pressurization on helical guided wave energy velocity in fluid-filled pipes.

The effect of pressurization stresses on helical guided waves in a thin-walled fluid-filled pipe is studied by modeling leaky Lamb waves in a stressed plate bordered by fluid. Fluid pressurization pro...

Transmission enhancement based on strong interference in metal-semiconductor layered film for energy harvesting.

A fundamental strategy to enhance optical transmission through a continuous metallic film based on strong interference dominated by interface phase shift is developed. In a metallic film coated with a...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.

The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.

A method of producing a high-quality scan by digitizing and subtracting the images produced by high- and low-energy x-rays.

A technique for analysis of the chemical composition of molecules. A substance is bombarded with monochromatic ELECTRONS. Some of the electrons passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The energy loss is element dependent. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. ENERGY-FILTERED TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY is a type of electron energy loss spectroscopy carried out in electron microscopes specially outfitted to analyze the spectrum of electron energy loss.

Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.

More From BioPortfolio on "The Lunch Study: the Combined Effects of Food Texture and Energy Density on Intake"

Quick Search

Relevant Topics

Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...

Public Health
Alternative Medicine Cleft Palate Complementary & Alternative Medicine Congenital Diseases Dentistry Ear Nose & Throat Food Safety Geriatrics Healthcare Hearing Medical Devices MRSA Muscular Dyst...

Searches Linking to this Trial