Study of Bronchial Inflammation in Adolescent Smokers With and Without Obesity
The investigators want to assess differences in lung function and bronchial inflammation of young smokers and non-smokers with (BMI > 30) and without obesity (BMI < 25)(4 patient groups). The aim of the study is to compare differences in lung function (VC, FEV1, VC/FEV1, metacholine challenge) and bronchial inflammation in relation with smoking history and levels of exhaled CO. For the latter the investigators will analyze the levels of IL-8, IL-6, TNF alpha and INF gamma and mRNA of LBP, TLR2 and TLR4 in sputum. Further, inflammatory markers e.g. low CRP and inflammatory cytokines levels in the blood will be investigated. The aim is to describe a early stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by cigarette smoke in juvenile smokers, and the relationship between bronchial inflammation and obesity in adolescents.
Tobacco smoke is the crucial factor at the beginning and in the course of the bronchial inflammation leading to COPD. It has been shown that cigarette smoke in vitro leads to a MAP kinase and NF-κB-dependent increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and inhibits bacteria-induced expression of β-defensins. Several studies revealed an increase of inflammatory cytokines like IL-8 and TNF in the sputum of smokers. Further studies demonstrated an up regulation of LTB4 and LBP possibly due to the LPS derived from tobacco smoke. Hasday et al could show that up to 15 ng per cigarette LPS is released. In principle, the cigarette smoke exposure liked a mild LPS inhalation. In separate work, we could show that LPS inhalation in healthy non-smokers to an increase of CRP and LBP concentrations in the serum lead. In another study of adolescents, 24 smokers (age 17.7 years) and 24 non-smoking (age 17.5 years) were compared. The CO in smokers was significantly increased, and the NO concentrations decreased. At the same time there was a significantly greater bronchial hyperreagibility in the smoker group.
According to a recent study in Germany (KiGGS study), already 31% of the adolescents' boys and 32% of the girls do smoke. The social status is of great importance. Boys and girls from families with a low social status smoke more frequently than those from families with middle-and especially with higher social status. Similarly obesity is linked to the social status with overweight occurring more often in families with a lower social status.
A visceral obesity is closely associated with the risk of type-2-diabetes as well as other aspects of the metabolic syndrome. However, the existing insulin resistance is of fundamental importance. Due to increased visceral fat depots and subsequently increased release of proinflammatory proteins various complications do occur.
Observational Model: Cohort, Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
Children's Hospital, Goethe-University
Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Hospitals
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00942019
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.
The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The discipline concerned with WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with OBESITY.
The purpose of this project is to establish a Center of Excellence in Research on Obesity that will focus on severe obesity. The prevalence of severe obesity (i.e., Class 2 and 3 obesity;...
The objective of this study is to test and evaluate the effectiveness of a parent-only treatment for childhood obesity. This study provides state-of-the-art treatment for childhood obesit...
The purpose of this study is to design and demonstrate the feasibility of implementing moderate and intensive environmental obesity prevention programs at major worksites.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a culturally-appropriate childhood obesity intervention with Hispanic families. The program aims at preventing childhood obesity b...
The purpose of this study is to explore the pathogenesis and genetic susceptibility of obese subjects,providing a convincing argument for further treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrom...
Obesity is one of the main health problems in the world with high societal and individual costs. To tackle the obesity epidemic, we need to collaborate across scientific boarders to fundamentally broa...
Objective:To explore the relationship between severity of obesity at age 7 and age 15, age at onset of obesity, and parental body mass index (BMI) in obese children and adolescents.Design:Longitudinal...
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, and obesity-related illnesses have become a leading preventable cause of death. Childhood obesity is also growing in frequency, and the i...
The interactions between obesity and infectious diseases have recently received increasing recognition as emerging data have indicated an association between obesity and poor outcome in pandemic H1N1...