Healthy Fatty Acids in Transition
Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a molecule that consists of two fatty acid chains bound by ester links to a glycerol molecule, in the form of 1,2 and 1,3 structural isomers. Approximately 10% of the edible oils on today's market are comprised from DAG. DAG oil has a similar taste, appearance, and fatty acid composition as conventional triacylglycerol oil (TAG; consists of 3 fatty acids chains bound to a glycerol molecule), yet recent studies suggest that due to its different chemical structure, DAG oil may induce cardiovascular (CV) benefits. Specifically, human studies in the United States (US) and Japan have shown that long-term consumption of a diet containing DAG oil enhances loss of body weight and body fat compared with TAG oil of similar fatty acid composition. In postprandial studies, serum triglycerides (TG) and remnant like particle cholesterol concentrations, have shown to be lower following ingestion of DAG-enriched oil compared to conventional dietary oil (e.g., soybean, corn), or TAG oil. Therefore, DAG oil appears to be effective for preventing postprandial hyperlipidemia, which is a risk factor for arteriosclerosis.
The hypothesis that the investigators propose in this pilot study is that intake of DAG oil, compared to TAG oil will result in a lower LDL-C, and lower LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, as well as a reduction in TG levels. Given the significance of such findings, if confirmed, the investigators will evaluate other important clinical biomarkers for chronic disease (CV Disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome), such as insulin sensitivity and inflammation [as determined by C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 & tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)], which also may be beneficially affected by consumption of the palm DAG oil. During the pilot study, the investigators will reserve serum/plasma samples so that these additional assays may be run upon approval of the modification.
Commonly consumed vegetable fats and oils are comprised predominantly of TAG, and small amounts of DAG and monoacylglycerol. TAG consists of 3 fatty acid ester, whereas diacylglycerol oil has 2 fatty acid esters linked to a glycerol backbone. Recently, Watanabe et al., developed a process by which the ratio of glycerides found in plant oils such as soybean, canola (rapeseed), or corn can be shifted from TAG to DAG, leading to the formation of oil composed largely of DAG. Commercially, DAG oil is produced by esterification of fatty acids derived from natural edible plant oils in the presence of lipase enzyme. Commercially produced vegetable DAG oil contains >80% DAG, <20% TAG, <5% monoacylglycerols, and small amounts of emulsifiers and antioxidants to maintain quality. The main constituent fatty acids of DAG oil are oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), and linolenic (C18:3) acids, present as 1,3- and 1,2 (or 2,3)-DAGs in a ratio of 7:3, respectively. These structural differences may be responsible for the purported metabolic effects of DAG compared to TAG oil, DAG oil has fewer fatty acids than TAG, and DAG-oil with a greater proportion of DAG in the sn-1,3 versus sn-1,2 form may be more readily oxidized. Thus, the effects of DAG oil on increasing LDL-C would be expected to be less than TAG oil.
Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Palm DAG Oil
Penn State University
Penn State University
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00937963
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Cardiovascular Physiological Processes
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Congenital, inherited, or acquired anomalies of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, including the HEART and BLOOD VESSELS.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The aim of this study is to compare the effects of a diet rich in palm olein, a fraction of palm oil, to a diet rich in olive oil and a diet rich in Danish lard on plasma total-, LDL and H...
In this study, the investigators address the research question of whether palm olein will have a positive influence on plasma total homocysteine levels in human volunteers provided with hi...
The purpose of the study is to assess the neuroprotective, anti atherogenic and hepatoprotective properties of tocotrienols (palm vitamin E) supplementation as determined by white matter l...
The goal of this open trial is to pilot the use of palm pilots as a tool for monitoring smoking behavior in individuals with serious mental illness. That is, the investigators aim to asse...
To investigate the contributions of neighborhood environments to the distribution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk across different age ranges and racial/ethnic groups, using data from...
We reviewed the scientific literature on the evidence of the relationship between palm oil and adverse effects on human health. Few studies have investigated the effects of palm oil per se, and the ma...
The palm oil industry generates several byproducts, and more than half of the dry weight of the waste is of oil palm leaf whereby the tissue is underutilized. Recently, several research studies found...
Production of a commercially important biodegradable polymer, pullulan, by Aureobasidium pullulans from four agricultural wastes namely wheat bran, rice bran, coconut kernel and palm kernel was evalua...
This paper reports measurements of land-atmosphere fluxes of sensible and latent heat, momentum, CO(2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NO, NO(2), N(2)O and O(3) over a 30 m high rainforest canopy...
Magnesium, calcium, copper, iron, and lead in palm oils ( Elaeis guineensis ) at various stages of the refining process were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after m...