N-Acetylcysteine and Milk Thistle for Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy
The study is designed to test if the combination of two potent antioxidant nutritional supplements, N-acetylcysteine and the milk thistle extract silibin, is capable of correcting the shedding of urine protein, the oxidative stress, and the inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic kidney disease.
Oxidative stress and GSH imbalance are major contributors to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Current options for the treatment of oxidative stress in diabetic nephropathy are limited and only partially effective, thus interest in the development of new strategies is high.
The study intends to test the hypothesis that combined oral supplementation of the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and milk thistle flavonolignan silibin (as silibin-phosphatidylcholine) will reduce proteinuria and urinary and systemic manifestations of oxidative stress and inflammation, which are characteristically observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and related nephropathy. We expect these effects to be achieved with minimal or no side effects, and with good patient tolerance.
The trial is designed as a two-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, modified-factorial dose-ranging design, five-arm pilot study in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and advanced diabetic nephropathy with proteinuria.
Intervention consists of three-month oral administration of NAC, silibin, and/or respective placebos for three months. Subjects are randomized to the following five intervention arms: (A) placebo; (B) NAC; (C) silibin; (D) NAC + silibin; and (E) NAC + double-dose silibin.
The primary outcome measure is urinary excretion of albumin, a marker of glomerular injury. Secondary outcome measures are alpha-1 microglobulin, a marker of tubular injury, and urinary excretion of inflammatory cytokines and C-C chemokines, i.e. markers of renal inflammation. In addition, peripheral blood monocytes from the same patients are analyzed for glutathione (GSH) content and activity of GSH metabolizing enzymes. All outcome measures are monitored in relation to both treatment allocation and prevalent blood and urine levels of the active treatment. Safety and tolerability of this combination treatment are monitored throughout the trial.
Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor), Primary Purpose: Treatment
N-acetylcysteine, silibin, high-dose silibin, N-acetylcysteine placebo, silibin placebo
University of Texas Hlth Sci Ctr San Ant
The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00915200
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on August 07, 2012
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
Lethal Dose 50
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Mice, Inbred Sencar
Mice selectively bred for hypersusceptibility to two-stage chemical skin carcinogenesis. They are also hypersusceptible to UV radiation tumorigenesis with single high-dose, but not chronic low-dose, exposures. SENCAR (SENsitive to CARcinogenesis) mice are used in research as an animal model for tumor production.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Maximum Tolerated Dose
The highest dose of a biologically active agent given during a chronic study that will not reduce longevity from effects other than carcinogenicity. (from Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
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