Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Chocolate consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. Popular claims confer on chocolate the properties of being a stimulant, relaxant, euphoriant and antidepressant. These possible pharmacological actions might be related to various biogenic amines, such as serotonin, dopamine, tyramine, histamine, phenylethylamine and cannabinoid-like substances. Most amines are metabolized by monoamineoxidase-A (MAO-A) and are therefore unable to pass the blood-brain-barrier. In contrast, phenylethylamine is a direct dopamine releasing ingredient and as a substrate of MAO-B and due to its lipophilic structure even capable to pass the blood-brain-barrier. Within this line, own clinical observations suggested an increased chocolate consumption in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) compared to healthy subjects and to their pre-disease state.
In a previous study, we assessed the consumption of chocolate and non-chocolate sweets in PD patients and their partners (as household controls) using a self-questionnaire. Consumption of chocolate was significantly higher in PD patients compared to controls, while consumption of non-chocolate sweets was similar in both groups. Our study suggests that chocolate consumption is increased in PD independent of concomitant depressive symptoms measured by BDI-1. Although reasons for increased chocolate consumption in PD remain elusive, it may hypothetically be a consequence of the high content of various biogenic amines as a content of cocoa influencing dopamine metabolism.
Therefore, in the present study we aim to study the effects of dark chocolate with high cocoa content (85%) compared to chocolate without any cocoa (white chocolate) on motor symptoms in PD patients as measured with UPDRS part III (motor score). The principle design of the intervention is similar to the standard pharmacological challenge test for studying effects on motor symptoms in PD (e.g. levodopa challenge test).
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment, Masking: Single Blind (Investigator), Primary Purpose: Treatment
Dresden University of Technology, Medical Faculty
Dresden University of Technology
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:21:57-0400
Dark chocolate is one of the richest sources of polyphenols though it has been hypothesised that the bioavailability and therefore probably the bioefficacy of epicatechin from milk chocola...
Dark chocolate is one of the richest sources of polyphenols though it has been hypothesised that the bioavailability of epicatechin from milk chocolate was reduced compared to dark. The pr...
Flavanols, present in dark chocolate, were shown to induce Nitric Oxide synthesis. Since Nitric Oxide facilitates smooth muscle relaxation, it might ease the relaxation of the LES (lower e...
The aim of the present study is to investigate whether in patients with chronic heart failure endothelial dysfunction and baroreceptor function is altered by ingestion of a flavonoid-rich ...
The purpose of this study is to investigate the individual and combined effects of dark chocolate/cocoa and almonds on lipids, lipoproteins, antioxidant defense, lipid peroxidation, phenol...
While tremor in Parkinson's Disease (PD) can be characterised in the consulting room, its relationship to treatment and fluctuations can be clinically helpful.
There is mounting evidence for a connection between the gut and Parkinson's disease (PD). Dysbiosis of gut microbiota could explain several features of PD.
The rate of Parkinson's disease (PD) progression varies widely between patients. Current knowledge does not allow to accurately predict the evolution of symptoms in a given individual over time.
Bradykinesia and reduced neuromuscular force exist in Parkinson disease. The interpolated twitch technique has been used to evaluate central versus peripheral manifestations of neuromuscular strength ...
Physical activity (PA) is increasingly advocated as an adjunct intervention for individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the specific benefits of PA on the wide variety of impairments obser...
Proteins associated with sporadic or familial cases of PARKINSON DISEASE.
A condition caused by the neurotoxin MPTP which causes selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Clinical features include irreversible parkinsonian signs including rigidity and bradykinesia (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY). MPTP toxicity is also used as an animal model for the study of PARKINSON DISEASE. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1072; Neurology 1986 Feb;36(2):250-8)
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.
Parkinsonism following encephalitis, historically seen as a sequella of encephalitis lethargica (Von Economo Encephalitis). The early age of onset, the rapid progression of symptoms followed by stabilization, and the presence of a variety of other neurological disorders (e.g., sociopathic behavior; TICS; MUSCLE SPASMS; oculogyric crises; hyperphagia; and bizarre movements) distinguish this condition from primary PARKINSON DISEASE. Pathologic features include neuronal loss and gliosis concentrated in the MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMUS; and HYPOTHALAMUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p754)
Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)
Of all the types of Dementia, Alzheimer's disease is the most common, affecting around 465,000 people in the UK. Neurons in the brain die, becuase 'plaques' and 'tangles' (mis-folded proteins) form in the brain. People with Al...
Parkinson's is a progressive neurological condition, affecting one person in every 500, 95% of which are over 40. It is caused by degeneration of more than 70% of the substantia nigra, which depletes the dopamine (the neurotransmitter involved in pro...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...