Functional and Cognitive Impairment in Advanced Kidney Disease
An increasing number of veterans are anticipated to develop chronic kidney disease (CKD) and require hemodialysis (HD) treatments as the veteran population ages. In 2003, approximately 290,000 US citizens were receiving HD and an estimated 19 million were affected by CKD. The annual growth rate is predicted to be 7% per year with 500,000 Americans receiving HD treatment by 2010. In 2005, approximately 2500 veterans were receiving HD with growth expected to parallel that seen in the general population. Whereas Alzheimer's disease is the leading cause of dementia in the general population, growing evidence suggests that patients with advanced CKD experience cognitive deficits related to accelerated cerebrovascular disease. Patients with advanced CKD have been shown to have a high prevalence of sub-clinical cerebrovascular damage on imaging studies and a heavy burden of vascular risk factors such as diabetes, elevated cholesterol, and hypertension. Many of the cognitive deficits related to cerebrovascular disease may go unrecognized by routine measures of cognition. HD patients have increased number of hospitalizations, and several compliance issues ranging from congestive heart failure to dangerous electrolyte imbalances. Impaired cognition in this population is likely to have a significant impact on self-care and compliance with complex medical regimens. Currently, the severity and scope of cognitive impairment related to vascular disease is not well known in patients with advanced kidney disease. Additionally, the relationship between cognitive impairment and measures of self-care independence are not well known. Loss of independence and function secondary to impaired cognitive function is likely to be a significant problem for patients with advanced kidney disease. Early identification of functional impairment, particularly instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), will allow for rehabilitation intervention. Maintaining or improving functional independence through intensive rehabilitation could translate into better compliance and lower hospitalization rate among HD patients. Information obtained from this study is likely to heighten awareness of cognitive impairment and the functional consequences in veterans with advanced kidney disease. Primary objectives are to determine:
1. The range of cognitive deficits with emphasis on domains affected by vascular disease in patients with advanced CKD and those receiving hemodialysis.
2. The associations between severity of cognitive impairment and severity of kidney disease.
3. The prevalence of impaired IADLs and the level of HRQOL in patients with advanced CKD and those requiring hemodialysis.
4. The relationship or association of cognitive impairment with IADL and HRQOL.
Secondary objective is to determine:
1. The relationships among cerebral and carotid blood flow, carotid artery stiffness, and renal specific metabolic abnormalities with cognitive impairment.
Observational Model: Case-Crossover, Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
Kidney Insufficiency, Chronic
VA Medical Center, Bronx
Department of Veterans Affairs
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00905619
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
Kidney Failure, Chronic
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE. The most severe form is KIDNEY FAILURE. Renal function may deteriorate slowly (RENAL INSUFFICIENCY, CHRONIC) or precipitously (RENAL INSUFFICIENCY, ACUTE).
Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.
A severe irreversible decline in the ability of kidneys to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal failure, either acute (KIDNEY FAILURE, ACUTE) or chronic (KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC), requires HEMODIALYSIS.
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