The Effect of Fetal Gender on Maternal Substance Abuse Treatment
Previous studies by this team of investigators has determined that male infants are more likely to display more severe neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) as a result of maternal opioid use during pregnancy (Jansson, 2007)and there is appears to be a gender-related biologic vulnerability to NAS expression (Jansson, 2009, submitted). The proposed study explores the relationship between fetal gender and substance abuse treatment outcomes among a population of women in comprehensive substance abuse treatment to explore the possibility of a psychosocial vulnerability among drug exposed male fetuses as opposed to female fetuses. Women in substance abuse treatment are a group at high risk for current exposure to violence, usually at the hands of significant others, and having a history of sexual abuse as a child, usually resulting from contact with a male family member. Therefore, they often have difficult relationships with men. At the Center for Addiction and Pregnancy (CAP), a 2006 study revealed that among a group of 715 pregnant women, reports of the exposure to violence was very high. Their rates of lifetime abuse ranged from 72.7% for physical abuse to 44.5% for sexual abuse. Rates of abuse remained high during their current pregnancy, ranging from 20% for physical abuse to 7.1% for sexual abuse (Velez, 2006). The abuse was very often at the hands of partners or other male family member perpetrators. We hypothesize that women carrying male fetuses will be less likely to remain complaint in drug treatment or abstinent from illicit drug use, while women carrying female fetuses may be more likely to remain drug abstinent and treatment compliant. If supported, this theory has the potential to inform fetal gender specific treatment for pregnant drug dependent women. Additionally, we seek to support the previously documented link between male gender and more severe expression of NAS, and explore the relationship between other maternal prescribed drug use (i.e. psychotropic medications) and severity of NAS expression.
Time Perspective: Retrospective
The Center for Addiction and Pregnancy
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00882648
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon morphine.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. It also has a depressant action on the cough center and may be given to control intractable cough associated with terminal lung cancer. Methadone is also used as part of the treatment of dependence on opioid drugs, although prolonged use of methadone itself may result in dependence. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
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