Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and Effect of Treatment With Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (Auto-CPAP) on Metabolic Syndrome
Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in persons with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is known to be very high, about 70%. However, it is unclear whether this association is causal or not. Results of earlier studies have been conflicting. The investigators hypothesize that treatment with auto-titrating continuous positive airway pressure (auto-CPAP) for a duration of 3 months improves the metabolic syndrome in subjects with OSAS.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a condition in which there is collapse of the upper airway during sleep, as a result of which there is a decrease or complete cessation of airflow. This leads to repeated episodes of hypoxia during sleep and sleep fragmentation. OSA is a highly prevalent though under-recognized clinical problem. The Wisconsin study estimated a prevalence of 24% in males and 9% in females. A population-based study in Delhi, India found the prevalence of OSA to be 13.7% and that of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) to be 3.8%.
OSA is associated with various systemic complications such as neurocognitive dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. There is an increased risk of motor vehicle and occupational accidents in people suffering from OSAS.
Metabolic syndrome is the co-occurrence of several cardiovascular risk factors such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia. Presence of OSA together with metabolic syndrome is known as 'Syndrome Z'. Although many studies have shown that OSA is associated with metabolic syndrome, the exact causal relationship between these two entities is not proven.
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the standard treatment for OSA with significant symptoms. However, it is a costly treatment option, and poor compliance is an important limiting factor. CPAP treatment has been shown to improve the daytime somnolence and neurocognitive function in people with OSAS. However, its effect on metabolic syndrome in people with OSAS is unclear.
This study aims to assess the effect of CPAP treatment on metabolic syndrome in patients with OSAS.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Placebo Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment, Masking: Single Blind (Subject), Primary Purpose: Treatment
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
AutoSet Spirit, Modified-AutoSet Spirit
All India Institute of Medical Sciences
All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00694616
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Sleep Apnea, Central
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.
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