Role of Dairy Products in Weight Maintenance
The goal of the current study is to determine the role of dairy in similarly preventing weight and fat re-gain in obese adults who have successfully completed a weight loss diet program.240 obese subjects will undergo a meal-replacement-based weight loss plan designed to produce a 10 kg weight loss in 8-12 weeks. Upon achieving the weight loss goal, subjects will be randomly assigned to either a low-dairy or high-dairy eucaloric weight maintenance diet for two years. Macronutrient distribution will be maintained constant and set at approximately the U.S. average. Primary outcomes include changes in body weight, body fat and anatomical distribution of fat (via dual x-ray absorptiometry) and resting metabolic rate and substrate oxidation (via respiratory calorimetry); Secondary outcomes include blood pressure, circulating glucose, insulin, lipids and calcitrophic hormones. on prevention of weight regain in humans has not yet been assessed in clinical trials.
Dietary calcium plays a pivotal role in the regulation of energy metabolism, as we have found high calcium diets to attenuate adipocyte lipid accretion and weight gain during periods of over-consumption of an energy-dense diet and to increase lipolysis and preserve thermogenesis during caloric restriction, thereby markedly accelerating weight loss. Our studies of the agouti gene demonstrate a key role for intracellular Ca2+ in regulating adipocyte lipid metabolism and triglyceride storage, with increased intracellular Ca2+ resulting in stimulation of lipogenic gene expression and lipogenesis and suppression of lipolysis, resulting in adipocyte lipid filling and increased adiposity. Moreover, the increased calcitriol produced in response to low calcium diets stimulates adipocyte Ca2+ influx and, consequently, promotes adiposity, while higher calcium diets inhibit lipogenesis, promote lipolysis, lipid oxidation and thermogenesis and inhibit diet-induced obesity in mice. Notably, dairy sources of calcium exert markedly greater effects in attenuating weight and fat gain and accelerating fat loss. This augmented effect of dairy products versus supplemental calcium is likely due to additional bioactive compounds in dairy which act synergistically with calcium to attenuate adiposity. These concepts are confirmed by both epidemiological and clinical data which demonstrates that increasing dietary calcium results in significant reductions in adipose tissue mass in obese humans in the absence of caloric restriction and markedly accelerates the weight and body fat loss secondary to caloric restriction, while dairy products exert markedly greater (nearly two-fold compared to calcium supplements) effects. These data indicate an important role for dairy products in both the prevention and treatment of obesity. However, weight maintenance following successful weight loss (i.e. prevention of regain) is at least as important as strategies to initially achieve weight loss, as most individuals who successfully lose weight are not successful in maintaining this weight loss. We have recently demonstrated that ad libitum re-feeding of dairy-rich following weight loss in mice on an energy restricted mice prevented the suppression of adipose tissue lipolysis and fat oxidation that otherwise accompanies such re-feeding and markedly upregulated skeletal muscle fat oxidation. Consequently, although animals re-fed low calcium diets rapidly regained all of the weight and fat that had been lost, animals fed high calcium diets exhibited a shift in energy partitioning and a 50-85% reduction in weight and fat gain; moreover, dairy exerted markedly greater effects than supplemental calcium on weight and fat regain. However, the effect of dairy on prevention of weight regain in humans has not yet been assessed in clinical trials. Accordingly, the goal of the current study is to determine the role of dairy in similarly preventing weight and fat re-gain in obese adults who have successfully completed a weight loss diet program.
340 obese subjects will undergo a meal-replacement-based weight loss plan designed to produce a 10 kg weight loss in 8-12 weeks. Upon achieving the weight loss goal, subjects will be randomly assigned to either a low-dairy or high-dairy eucaloric weight maintenance diet for two years. Macronutrient distribution will be maintained constant and set at approximately the U.S. average. Primary outcomes include changes in body weight, body fat and anatomical distribution of fat (via dual x-ray absorptiometry) and resting metabolic rate and substrate oxidation (via respiratory calorimetry); Secondary outcomes include blood pressure, circulating glucose, insulin, lipids and calcitrophic hormones.
Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Prevention
Dairy Foods, Dairy Foods
University of Kansas
University of Tennessee
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00686426
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.
A rod-shaped bacterium isolated from milk and cheese, dairy products and dairy environments, sour dough, cow dung, silage, and human mouth, human intestinal contents and stools, and the human vagina.
Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
An approach to nutrition based on whole cereal grains, beans, cooked vegetables and the Chinese YIN-YANG principle. It advocates a diet consisting of organic and locally grown foods, seasonal vegetables, complex carbohydrates, and fewer fats, sugars, and chemically processed foods.
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