Cardiac Surgery: In Vivo Titration of Protamine
Safe use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) requires massive doses of intravenous unfractionated heparin. At end-CPB, residual heparin is neutralized with intravenous injection of protamine sulfate. This prospective, randomized, controlled study will be conducted in 82 voluntary subjects admitted for elective, first intention, cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Each will be randomly assigned to one of two groups. The control group will be submitted to a standard protamine infusion of 1.3mg :100U of the total heparin dose given during bypass. The test group will receive an infusion of protamine (over 15 minutes) until activated clotting time (ACT) values (determined every 3 minutes) depict a plateau, sign that the optimal protamine to heparin ratio has been attained. The investigators hypothesize this new in vivo titration method to be as efficient as the standard protocol (adequacy of heparin neutralization, % heparin rebound, bleeding, and transfusion), and potentially safer by its ability to prevent protamine overdose and its deleterious impact on platelet function.15
Evaluate a new in vivo method of titration of protamine sulfate.
Evaluate the impact of this method on the adequacy of heparin neutralization by measuring:
1. platelet count
2. postoperative bleeding
3. transfusion exposure a
4. incidence of heparin rebound
Protamine sulfate is administered to reverse the anticoagulant effects of heparin upon completion of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In most cases, protamine is given in amounts sufficient to neutralize the total dose of heparin.9 This dose is usually calculated with a ratio of 1.3mg protamine for every 100U heparin given.10 In the literature, reported doses of intraoperatively administered protamine range from 0 to 8mg per 100U of heparin. Given in excess, protamine can, in addition to complement activation and hemodynamic instability,11 induce platelet dysfunctions.12-16 The latter significantly increases both the cost and morbidity of cardiac interventions as it is one of the main causes of postoperative bleeding. The optimal protamine/heparin ratio is difficult to individualize for each patient because of the great interpatient variability in heparin's metabolism4-7 and of the absence of correlation between ACT and heparin's plasma concentration.8 Consumption of heparin may vary from 0.01 to 3.86U/Kg per minute during CPB.30 The exact concentration of remaining circulating heparin at the end of bypass is not easily obtained.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator), Primary Purpose: Treatment
Titration protamine, Standard administration of protamine
Montreal Heart Institute
Montreal Heart Institute
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00684450
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-pump
Coronary artery bypass surgery on a beating HEART without a CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS (diverting the flow of blood from the heart and lungs through an oxygenator).
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 220.127.116.11) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP. EC 18.104.22.168.
An intermediate-acting INSULIN preparation with onset time of 2 hours and duration of 24 hours. It is produced by crystallizing ZINC-insulin-PROTAMINES at neutral pH 7. Thus it is called neutral protamine Hagedorn for inventor Hans Christian Hagedorn.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
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