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Treatment options in patients with high intracranial pressure due to acute liver failure are limited. This study intends to evaluate the effect of prophylactic hypothermia on preventing high intracranial pressure and compromised cerebral oxidative metabolism.
Acute liver failure (ALF) is associated with a high mortality. With severe hepatic encephalopathy and elevated arterial ammonia concentration (< 200 micromol/L) more than 50% of the patients will develop high intracranial pressure (ICP) and risk cerebral incarceration and death. The therapeutic options are limited in treating and preventing this condition and new interventions are much sought after. As in hypothermia used for patients after cardiac resuscitation it could be speculated that hypothermia and the reduced cerebral metabolic rate would contribute to neuroprotection and reduce the risk of cerebral hypertension in patients with ALF. We have designed this open, randomized and unblinded study in order to evaluate the effect of prophylactic hypothermia on ICP, cerebral hemodynamics and oxidative metabolism. Patients are randomized to standard medical treatment (SMT) or SMT and hypothermia 33° C for 72 hours using a cooling mattress (Blanketrol II, Cincinnati Sub-Zero). All patients will receive mechanical ventilation, antibiotics, inotropic support and monitored with invasive and non-invasive equipment in accordance to local guidelines. In Copenhagen monitoring cerebral hemodynamics includes:
Placement of a intracranial pressure measuring catheter (Camino (R), Integra) for monitoring ICP. Furthermore, a microdialysis catheter (CMA-70) placed in brain cortex is used for monitoring brain metabolism. Finally, cerebral perfusion can be monitored by measuring mean flow velocity using transcranial doppler and/or SvjO2.
The Helsinki II declaration will be followed and informed consent is mandatory for enrollment. In any patient where hypothermia is believed or suspected to be harmful the study should be stopped and the primary investigator should be notified immediately. All adverse effects will be recorded and published together with the full paper.
Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Acute Liver Failure
Hypothermia by the use of Blanketrol II, Cincinnati Sub-Zero
Division of Hepatology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University
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A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
A severe irreversible decline in the ability of kidneys to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal failure, either acute (KIDNEY FAILURE, ACUTE) or chronic (KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC), requires HEMODIALYSIS.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.
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