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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects approximately 8 million adults in the United States. Adults with ADHD may experience difficulty concentrating, poor organization ability, mood swings, and trouble completing work. If not managed properly, ADHD can lead to behavioral, emotional, academic, social, and work-related problems. Neurobiological research has shown that people with ADHD exhibit low levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter of the brain that controls a person's ability to concentrate and focus on surroundings. Lobeline, a nonstimulant medication that acts to alter dopamine uptake, may be effective in improving abnormalities in brain dopamine levels. Although lobeline has been successfully used as a smoking cessation aid because of its ability to inhibit nicotine-induced hyperactivity, the effectiveness of lobeline as a treatment for ADHD has not been explored. This study will evaluate the effectiveness of lobeline in improving adult ADHD symptoms, specifically inattention, impulsivity, and memory problems. This study will also evaluate any side effects of lobeline treatment.
Participation in this study will last between 4 and 5 weeks, during which participants will attend 10 study visits at the General Clinical Research Center (GCRC). Participants will first undergo a medical evaluation visit that will include a physical exam, electrocardiogram (EKG), blood draw, urine testing, and breath sampling. Participants will then return for an orientation visit to complete questionnaires and to receive training on the computer and on memory tasks to be performed during later visits.
The next 7 visits will comprise the laboratory testing and medication treatment portion of the study. Each visit will last 4.5 hours and will include urine and breath sampling, computer and memory tasks, questionnaires, vital sign measurements, and medication distribution. Participants will be randomly assigned to take two different pills at each lab visit. One pill will be a placebo of lobeline or methylphenidate, a medication stimulant used in treating ADHD, and the other pill will be active lobeline or methylphenidate. Drug combinations and doses will vary each day, but participants will never receive two active pills on the same day. All participants will undergo a follow-up evaluation between 7 and 14 days after the final lab visit. The evaluation will include questions about side effects from study medication, breath and urine sampling, a blood draw, and a physical exam.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Placebo Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator), Primary Purpose: Treatment
Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity
Lobeline sulfate, Methylphenidate HCl, Placebo
General Clinical Research Center, University of Kentucky
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
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