Evaluation of a Simplified Protocol for Regional Citrate Anticoagulation in Continuous Venovenous Hemodiafiltration
Dialysis requires thinning of the blood to prevent clotting in the dialysis machine. Thinning of the blood is necessary but some forms of blood thinners may cause bleeding. Therefore, researchers are seeking ways to minimize bleeding risks and ensure effective dialysis.
One medication used to thin the blood in the dialysis machine is citrate. Citrate has the advantage of having its blood-thinning properties quickly reversed by calcium in the patient's blood. As a consequence, only the blood in the machine is thinned, greatly reducing the risk of bleeding when dialysis is carried out using other blood thinners. Until now, most patients who received citrate for dialysis were administered the citrate in a separate infusion through an IV pump into the dialysis machine. This method requires complex monitoring and calculations. This study is about Prismocitrate which is a dialysis fluid very similar to the regular dialysis fluid that is used in this intensive care unit, except that this fluid already contains exactly the correct amount of citrate. Thus, this method does not require a separate pump for citrate and calculations to pump the citrate into the blood as it goes through the kidney machine. Having the citrate already contained in the dialysis fluid simplifies the procedure and reduces the possibility of calculation errors.
This study seeks to determine if this simplified means of providing blood thinning in the kidney machine also results in the correct balance of blood salts.
Acute renal failure is common among the critically ill [1-3] , and is an independent contributor to morbidity and mortality [4,5]. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is commonly used for renal replacement in this group. This requires an extracorporeal circuit, the maintenance of which requires anticoagulation. Heparin has been the most common anticoagulant used with CRRT. However, heparin exposure for CRRT is major risk after surgery or trauma. Citrate has been used as a regional anticoagulant for plasmapheresis and chronic dialysis for many years [12,13], and is increasingly being used for CRRT. Regional anticoagulation refers to the provision of anticoagulation within the extracorporeal circuit without any alteration in coagulation in the patient's systemic circulation. Calcium is a co-factor in coagulation. Citrate reduces levels of ionized calcium in blood of the extracorporeal circuit to levels where coagulation cannot occur. Once the blood is returned to the patient's systemic circulation, the calcium levels are restored and coagulation can occur again. Renal replacement solutions for CRRT using citrate anticoagulation, should be calcium-free. [14-19] Despite a reduced risk of bleeding, widespread adoption of citrate regional anticoagulation has been limited by a lack of commercially available calcium-free solutions and the complexity of many protocols. Part of this complexity is the requirement for a separate citrate infusion into the extracorporeal circuit to achieve regional anticoagulation. This simplified protocol provides citrate in the replacement fluid infused prefilter as both anticoagulant and as buffer.
To predict appropriate replacement rates, Hospal Gambro scientific laboratories have developed a calculation model to predict the physiological interactions between the components of the administered replacement- and hemodialysis fluids and the patient's complex metabolic system. These interactions are influenced, in large part, by systemic parameters such as blood-flow and ultrafiltration rates, and patient parameters, such as acid base-status and liver function. This calculation model needs clinical validation in respect to its ability to predict the outcome and narrow the margin of metabolic disturbances caused by the administration of citrate anticoagulation. A previous study of a similar replacement fluid using citrate 8 mmol/L and citric acid 4 mmol/L resulted in mild metabolic acidosis of minimal clinical significance in some subjects and so this study will evaluate a modified version of fluid containing citrate 10 mmol/L and citric acid 2 mmol/L which has been calculated to provide optimal metabolic balance.
Twenty patients in the General Systems ICU at the University of Alberta Hospital treated with CVVHDF using a Prisma-CFM machine will be studied.
1. Male or female between 17 and 80 years of age.
2. Intensive care unit patient.
3. Renal failure requiring CVVHDF.
4. Likely to survive for at least 72 hours.
1. Age > 80 years
2. Need for systemic anticoagulation, fibrinolytic therapy or activated protein C
3. Acute or chronic hepatic failure
Patients are treated by regular CVVHDF setting in pre-dilution mode. The replacement flow-rate for the citrate replacement fluid depends on the blood pump speed [fixed ratio, see 9.3 and table below]. Mean dialysate flow is between 100 ml/hr and 2500ml/hour in accordance to the desired base-equivalent intake. Access pressure is kept between -100 and 150mmHg. Access and return pressure are monitored. Specially formulated replacement- and dialysate fluids are used.
Citrate anticoagulation Published literature data show that a mean citrate-dosage of 3.5 to 4mmol/l of undiluted blood is necessary to decrease the level of ionized serum calcium below 0.4mmol/l which provides sufficient anticoagulation to maintain an extracorporeal circuit. A minimum citrate concentration of 3.5 mmol/l blood will be used in this protocol. The infused citrate replacement fluid contains trisodium citrate and citric acid in a mixture (10mmol/l tri-sodium citrate plus 2 mmol/l citric acid). Preliminary results proved that the anticoagulation potency of this mixture is similar to a plain 12 mmol/l tri-sodium citrate solution. Therefore a fixed ratio of citrate replacement fluid will be infused in pre-pump predilution mode per 1 liter of effective blood flow.
The loss of calcium- and magnesium-citrate in the ultra-filtrate via the hemofilter needs to be compensated to avoid systemic hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia. Calcium replacement solution is prepared by removing 300 mls from a 1000 mls bag of 0.9% saline and subsequently adding 200 mls of 10% calcium gluconate to this bag. This calcium gluconate solution is infused via a central line at an initial infusion rate of 60 ml/hr. Ionized calcium levels are monitored every 6-8 hours and corrected by changing of flow rate of the infusion.
Potassium is added into the replacement and dialysate fluid based on clinical requirement.
The sodium bicarbonate level is influenced by the flow-rate of the replacement fluid (citrate intake) and the dialysate flow (bicarbonate intake). It is monitored every 6 hours and is corrected during treatment by altering the dialysate flow. Reducing the flow rate lowers bicarbonate intake in case of metabolic alkalosis, raising flow increases the bicarbonate intake in case of metabolic acidosis. If these adjustments are not successful, further corrections can be done by adding bicarbonate into the next dialysate fluid bag, when it is changed:
Consent procedure Subjects will be identified, recruited and informed consent obtained by the principal investigator, co-investigator or research co-ordinators.
Study benefits The study renal replacement solution includes all elements required for safe use. It does not require custom preparation by hospital personnel. This will minimize risk of error and increase patient safety. It is hoped this study will eventually enable the general use of a simple safe technique for citrate regional anticoagulation during continuous renal replacement therapy.
Adverse effects CVVHDF using citrate regional anticoagulation using any protocol may be associated with hypocalcemia, metabolic alkalosis or acidosis, hypernatremia or hyponatremia. In anticipation of this, all protocols including this one use extensive metabolic monitoring and algorithmic responses to abnormalities. This simplified protocol minimizes the potential for complication.
Adverse effects would be notified to patient or family, investigator, and HREB committee.
Privacy Patient data will be anonymized to prevent identification. Gambro Canada (study sponsor) will have access to anonymized case report forms and aggregate report.
Observational Model: Cohort, Time Perspective: Prospective
Kidney Failure, Acute
Regional citrate anticoagulation
General Systems Intensive Care Unit, University of Alberta Hospital
University of Alberta
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00583765
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A severe irreversible decline in the ability of kidneys to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal failure, either acute (KIDNEY FAILURE, ACUTE) or chronic (KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC), requires HEMODIALYSIS.
Acute Kidney Injury
Abrupt reduction in kidney function defined as an absolute increase in serum CREATININE of more than or equal to 0.3. mg/dl, a percentage increase in serum creatinine of more than or equal to 50%, or a reduction in urine output. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute
Acute kidney failure resulting from destruction of EPITHELIAL CELLS of the KIDNEY TUBULES. It is commonly attributed to exposure to toxic agents or renal ISCHEMIA following severe TRAUMA.
Renal Insufficiency, Acute
Conditions in which the function of KIDNEYS deteriorates suddenly in a matter of days or even hours. It is characterized by the sudden drop in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE; (GMR). The most severe stage is when the GFR drops below 15 ml per min (ACUTE KIDNEY FAILURE).
Kidney Failure, Acute
A severe stage of acute renal insufficiency, characterized by the sudden decrease in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min, sometime to less than 1 to 2 ml per min. It is usually associated with OLIGURIA; EDEMA; and increase in BLOOD UREA NITROGEN and serum CREATININE concentrations.
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