Efficacy of N-Acetylcysteine in Treatment of Overt Diabetic Nephropathy
On a molecular level, at least five major pathways have been implicated in glucose-mediated vascular and renal damage and all of these could reflect a single hyperglycaemia-induced process of overproduction of reactive oxygen species.
Recent studies have shown that inflammation, and more specifically pro-inflammatory cytokines play a determinant role in the development of micro- vascular diabetic complications, most of the attention has been focused on the implications of TNF-α in the setting of diabetic nephropathy.
Glutathione is the most abundant low-molecular-weight thiol, and Glutathione/ glutathione disulfide is the major redox couple in animal cells.
N-acetylcysteine is effective precursors of cysteine for tissue Glutathione synthesis.
Not only does N-acetylcysteine exhibit antioxidant properties, but it may also counteract the glycation cascade through the inhibition of oxidation.
N-acetylcysteine can also reduce the apoptosis elicited by reactive oxygen species .
Indeed, N-acetylcysteine has been shown to inhibit reactive oxygen species induced mesangial apoptosis and to be able to protect cells from glucose-induced inhibition of proliferation.
Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Mohammad mahdi sagheb
Iran, Islamic Republic of
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Results (where available)
- Source: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00556465
- Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on July 15, 2010
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)
Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.
Common foot problems in persons with DIABETES MELLITUS, caused by any combination of factors such as DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES; PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASES; and INFECTION. With the loss of sensation and poor circulation, injuries and infections often lead to severe foot ulceration, GANGRENE and AMPUTATION.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
A phenylacetamide that was formerly used in ANALGESICS but nephropathy and METHEMOGLOBINEMIA led to its withdrawal from the market. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology,1991, p431)