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On a molecular level, at least five major pathways have been implicated in glucose-mediated vascular and renal damage and all of these could reflect a single hyperglycaemia-induced process of overproduction of reactive oxygen species.
Recent studies have shown that inflammation, and more specifically pro-inflammatory cytokines play a determinant role in the development of micro- vascular diabetic complications, most of the attention has been focused on the implications of TNF-α in the setting of diabetic nephropathy.
Glutathione is the most abundant low-molecular-weight thiol, and Glutathione/ glutathione disulfide is the major redox couple in animal cells.
N-acetylcysteine is effective precursors of cysteine for tissue Glutathione synthesis.
Not only does N-acetylcysteine exhibit antioxidant properties, but it may also counteract the glycation cascade through the inhibition of oxidation.
N-acetylcysteine can also reduce the apoptosis elicited by reactive oxygen species .
Indeed, N-acetylcysteine has been shown to inhibit reactive oxygen species induced mesangial apoptosis and to be able to protect cells from glucose-induced inhibition of proliferation.
Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Mohammad mahdi sagheb
Iran, Islamic Republic of
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:35:11-0400
The study is designed to test if the combination of two potent antioxidant nutritional supplements, N-acetylcysteine and the milk thistle extract silibin, is capable of correcting the shed...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of acetylcysteine compared to placebo for the contrast-induced nephropathy prevention, between 48 and 96 hours after procedures that u...
Multiple agents have been studied to prevent radiocontrast nephropathy after the administration of radiocontrast agents. One of these agents is N-acetylcysteine. Previous trials to asses...
Several studies demonstrated a significant reduction of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN; definition: increase in serum creatinine of >=0.5mg/dl and/or >=25% increase within 48h after con...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether N-acetylcysteine is effective in the treatment or prevention of the foot ulcers in diabetic patients.
Hyperglycemia-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress could be causes of renal fibrosis in diabetes. Oleanolic acid (OA) naturally occurs in fruits and vegetables. It has anti-i...
Diabetic vascular complication is a leading cause of diabetic nephropathy, a progressive increase in urinary albumin excretion coupled with elevated blood pressure leading to declined glomerular filtr...
Accelerated apoptosis plays a vital role in the development of diabetic vascular complications. Ozone may attenuate diabetic nephropathy by means of decreased apoptosis-related genes. The aim of our s...
Epidemiological studies show increasing prevalence of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease are the biggest group from among patients on renal replacement therapy. Renal ...
Diabetic nephropathy is associated with aberrant glomerular filtration of serine proteases. The study was designed to test the hypothesis that the epithelial sodium channel is activated proteolyticall...
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)
Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.
Common foot problems in persons with DIABETES MELLITUS, caused by any combination of factors such as DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES; PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASES; and INFECTION. With the loss of sensation and poor circulation, injuries and infections often lead to severe foot ulceration, GANGRENE and AMPUTATION.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
A phenylacetamide that was formerly used in ANALGESICS but nephropathy and METHEMOGLOBINEMIA led to its withdrawal from the market. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology,1991, p431)
Nephrology - kidney function
Nephrology is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation). Systemic conditions...
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...