Top five promising drugs Phase I (February 2014) Research

14:52 EDT 22nd July 2017 | BioPortfolio

Severity of Depression Impacts Imminent Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been suggested to represent a prodromal stage of dementia and to confer a high risk for conversion to dementia Alzheimer's type (DAT).

Passive Assessment of Routine Driving with Unobtrusive Sensors: A New Approach for Identifying and Monitoring Functional Level in Normal Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Driving is a key functional activity for many older adults, and changes in routine driving may be associated with emerging cognitive decline due to early neurodegenerative disease. Current methods for assessing driving such as self-report are inadequate for identifying and monitoring subtle changes in driving patterns that may be the earliest signals of functional change in developing mild cogniti...

Computerized Cognitive Screen (CoCoSc): A Self-Administered Computerized Test for Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Community Social Centers.

Computerized cognitive tests may serve as a preliminary, low-cost method to identify individuals with suspected cognitive impairment in the community.

The Relationship of Brain Amyloid Load and APOE Status to Regional Cortical Thinning and Cognition in the ADNI Cohort.

Both amyloid (Aβ) load and APOE4 allele are associated with neurodegenerative changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) prone regions and with risk for cognitive impairment.

Left Frontal Hub Connectivity during Memory Performance Supports Reserve in Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Reserve in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined as maintaining cognition at a relatively high level in the presence of neurodegeneration, an ability often associated with higher education among other life factors. Recent evidence suggests that higher resting-state functional connectivity within the frontoparietal control network, specifically the left frontal cortex (LFC) hub, contributes...

Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurogranin as a Biomarker of Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study.

We investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the postsynaptic biomarker neurogranin at baseline in cognitively healthy controls (HC) compared to individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, and patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). CSF neurogranin was quantified using an in-house immunoassay in a cross-sectional multicente...

Novel Blood-Based Biomarkers of Cognition, Stress, and Physical or Cognitive Training in Older Adults at Risk of Dementia: Preliminary Evidence for a Role of BDNF, Irisin, and the Kynurenine Pathway.

 Psychosocial stress and physical, cognitive, and social activity predict the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The aim of this study was to elucidate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), irisin, and the kynurenine pathway (KP) as potential underlying biological correlates. We evaluated associations of irisin and the KP with BDNF in serum and with cognition, stress, and activities. Fur...

Temporal Order of Alzheimer's Disease-Related Cognitive Marker Changes in BLSA and WRAP Longitudinal Studies.

Investigation of the temporal trajectories of currently used neuropsychological tests is critical to identifying earliest changing measures on the path to dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used the Progression Score (PS) method to characterize the temporal trajectories of measures of verbal memory, executive function, attention, processing speed, language, and mental status using data s...

A re-examination of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) cutoff scores.

The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA; Nasreddine et al., 2005) is a cognitive screening tool that aims to differentiate healthy cognitive aging from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Several validation studies have been conducted on the MoCA, in a variety of clinical populations. Some studies have indicated that the originally suggested cutoff score of 26/30 leads to an inflated rate of false po...

Keeping safe. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in persons with Type 1 diabetes and impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia: a qualitative study.

To further our understanding of individual use and experience of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in adults with Type 1 diabetes and impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia, we conducted a qualitative study supplementary to a randomized controlled trial, using semi-structured interviews.

Dietetic management of gestational diabetes in New Zealand: A cross-sectional survey.

The aim of this study was to evaluate dietetic practice in the management of gestational diabetes in New Zealand, compare this with evidence-based guidelines and determine the need for New Zealand-specific evidence-based nutrition practice guidelines for gestational diabetes.

Insulin secretion and action in North Indian women during pregnancy.

The relative roles(s) of impaired insulin secretion vs. insulin resistance in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus depend upon multiple risk factors and diagnostic criteria. Here, we explored their relative contribution to gestational diabetes as defined by the WHO 1999 (GDM1999) and adapted WHO 2013 (GDM2013) criteria, excluding the 1-h glucose value, in a high-risk Indian population ...

Optimising the effectiveness of diabetes education in an East Asian population.

To explore the collective patterns of learning behaviours and preferences of Chinese people during diabetes education. The study was carried out across three countries and aimed to identify strategies that could be used to tailor diabetes education to Chinese people.

Process evaluation of a patient-centred, patient-directed, group-based education program for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

The present study developed and evaluated a patient-centred, patient-directed, group-based education program for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Dietetic and educational interventions improve clinical outcomes of diabetic and obese clients with mental impairment.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietetic and educational interventions provided to clients with type 2 diabetes (with or without obesity) or obesity-only residing in supported residential facilities and characterised by mental impairment.

New onset diabetes after kidney transplantation is associated with increased mortality- a retrospective cohort study.

Clinical outcomes in individuals with new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) and the optimal treatment for this complication are poorly characterized. This study was intended to better define these issues.

Experimental Realization of Type-II Dirac Fermions in a PdTe_{2} Superconductor.

A Dirac fermion in a topological Dirac semimetal is a quadruple-degenerate quasiparticle state with a relativistic linear dispersion. Breaking either time-reversal or inversion symmetry turns this system into a Weyl semimetal that hosts double-degenerate Weyl fermion states with opposite chiralities. These two kinds of quasiparticles, although described by a relativistic Dirac equation, do not nec...

Maternal-Fetal Outcomes in 34 Pregnant Women with Type 1 Diabetes in Sensor-Augmented Insulin Pump Therapy.

Pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with increased risk of maternal complications and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimizing glycemic control improves these outcomes.

The Association of Cognitive Reserve in Chronic-Phase Functional and Neuropsychological Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury.

Examine the association of cognitive reserve (CR) factors (estimated premorbid intelligence quotient [IQ], years of education, and occupational attainment) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity with functional and neuropsychological outcomes 1 to 5 years following TBI.

Renal function and its association with blood pressure in Middle Eastern immigrants and native Swedes.

Iraqi-born immigrants residing in Sweden are at high risk for type 2 diabetes, obesity and hyperlipidemia compared with native Swedes. Paradoxically, hypertension is less prevalent in this immigrant population. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in renal function and further if differences in blood pressure (BP) levels were associated with differences across ethnicities in renal ...

The KP1_4563 gene is regulated by the cAMP receptor protein and controls type 3 fimbrial function in Klebsiella pneumoniae NTUH-K2044.

Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is an opportunistic pathogen that can adhere to host cells or extracellular matrix via type 1 and type 3 fimbriae. KP1_4563 is a gene encoding a hypothetical protein in K. pneumoniae NTUH-K2044. KP1_4563 is located between the type 1 and type 3 fimbrial gene clusters and is likely associated with fimbrial function given its putative conserved domains of unknow...

Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 supplementation reduces gastrointestinal dysfunction in an animal model of IBS.

We evaluated the effect of Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 on intestinal neuromuscular anomalies in an IBS-type mouse model of gastrointestinal motor dysfunctions elicited by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) exposure.

Placental peptides metabolism and maternal factors as predictors of risk of gestational diabetes in pregnant women. A case-control study.

Gestational diabetes is a risk factor for perinatal complications; include shoulder dystocia, birth injuries such as bone fractures and nerve palsies. It is associated with later development of type 2 diabetes, the risk of macrosomia and other long-term health effects of infants born to diabetic mothers. The study assesses placental peptides and maternal factors as potential predictors of gestatio...

Impact of diabetes mellitus on indeterminate results of the QuantiFERON TB Gold In-Tube test: A propensity score matching analysis.

The sensitivity of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection could be affected by conditions of immune dysregulation. For this reason, diabetes mellitus (DM) may increase the frequency of indeterminate results of IGRAs. However, there have been inconsistent reports of role of DM on indeterminate IGRA results.

Age-related decrements in dual-task performance: Comparison of different mobility and cognitive tasks. A cross sectional study.

This cross-sectional study investigated the age-related differences in dual-task performance both in mobility and cognitive tasks and the additive dual-task costs in a sample of older, middle-aged and young adults. 74 older adults (M = 72.63±5.57 years), 58 middle-aged adults (M = 46.69±4.68 years) and 63 young adults (M = 25.34±3.00 years) participated in the study. Participants performed diff...

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