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Top five promising drugs Phase I (February 2014) Research

20:25 EDT 22nd September 2017 | BioPortfolio

Neuropsychology and Cognitive Neuroscience in the fMRI Era: A Recapitulation of Localizationist and Connectionist Views.

We highlight the past 25 years of cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, focusing on the impact to the field of the introduction in 1992 of functional MRI (fMRI).

The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Item and Associative Recognition Memory.

Sleep deprivation adversely affects the ability to perform cognitive tasks, but theories range from predicting an overall decline in cognitive functioning because of reduced stability in attentional networks to specific deficits in various cognitive domains or processes. We measured the effects of sleep deprivation on two memory tasks, item recognition ("was this word in the list studied") and ass...

Do reading and spelling share orthographic representations? Evidence from developmental dysgraphia.

Both spelling and reading depend on knowledge of the spellings of words. Despite this commonality, observed dissociations between spelling and reading in cases of acquired and developmental deficits suggest some degree of independence between the cognitive mechanisms involved in these skills. In this paper, we examine the relationship between spelling and reading in two children with developmental...

To defend or to affiliate: the effects of categorical similarity cues after social exclusion.

This article proposed that after social exclusion, individuals may react in a hostile or amiable manner, which depends on the type of categorical similarity cues that new groups possess. For excluded individuals, groups that resemble their excluder would provoke a defensive attitude. They also exhibit hospitality to groups that resemble themselves to gain inclusion. In experiment 1, social exclusi...

Markers of Microbial Translocation and Immune Activation Predict Cognitive Processing Speed in Heavy-Drinking Men Living with HIV.

HIV infection and alcohol use disorder are associated with deficits in neurocognitive function. Emerging evidence points to pro-inflammatory perturbations of the gut-brain axis as potentially contributing to neurocognitive impairment in the context of HIV and chronic heavy alcohol use. This study examined whether plasma markers of microbial translocation (LPS) from the gastrointestinal tract and r...

A Comprehensive Survey of the Roles of Highly Disordered Proteins in Type 2 Diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic and progressive disease that is strongly associated with hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) related to either insulin resistance or insufficient insulin production. Among the various molecular events and players implicated in the manifestation and development of diabetes mellitus, proteins play several important roles. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and ...

Metabolomics and cognition in African American adults in midlife: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

Clinical studies have shown alterations in metabolic profiles when patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease dementia were compared to cognitively normal subjects. Associations between 204 serum metabolites measured at baseline (1987-1989) and cognitive change were investigated in 1035 middle-aged community-dwelling African American participants in the biracial Atherosclerosi...

Oxidative stress, prefrontal cortex hypomyelination and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia.

Schizophrenia (SZ) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a broad symptomatology, including cognitive symptoms that are thought to arise from the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The neurobiological aetiology of these symptoms remains elusive, yet both impaired redox control and PFC dysconnectivity have been recently implicated. PFC dysconnectivity has been linked to white matter, oligodendrocyte (OL) and ...

Changes in striatal activity and functional connectivity in a mouse model of Huntington's disease.

Hereditary Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with progressive motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. A primary consequence of the HD mutation is the preferential loss of medium spiny projection cells with relative sparing of local interneurons in the striatum. In addition, among GABAergic striatal projection cells, indirect pathway cells expressing D2 dopamine receptors are lost earlier ...

The significant effects of cerebral microbleeds on cognitive dysfunction: An updated meta-analysis.

Accumulated data suggests that cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) play an important role in the decline of cognitive function, but the results remain inconsistent. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the association between CMBs and cognitive function, as well as the various effects of CMBs on different domains of cognition.

MicroRNA-455-3p as a potential peripheral biomarker for Alzheimer's disease.

The purpose of our study was to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) as early detectable peripheral biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To achieve our objective, we assessed miRNAs in serum samples from AD patients and Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects relative to healthy controls. We used Affymetrix microarray analysis and validated differentially expressed miRNAs using qRT-PCR. We further vali...

Epstein-Barr Virus Type 2 Infects T Cells in Healthy Kenyan Children.

The 2 strains of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), EBV type 1 (EBV-1) and EBV-2, differ in latency genes, suggesting that they use distinct mechanisms to establish latency. We previously reported that EBV-2 infects T cells in vitro. In this study, we tested the possibility that EBV-2 infects T cells in vivo.

A safety evaluation of empagliflozin plus linagliptin for treating type 2 diabetes.

Dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV inhibitors (DPP-4i) and sodium-glucose-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are oral antidiabetic drugs that improve glycemic parameters and possess a very low intrinsic hypoglycemia risk and favorable cardiovascular data. Areas covered: An overview on the clinical studies investigating the combination therapy with the DPP-4i linagliptin and the SGLT-2i empagliflozin is given...

Measuring and modeling for the assessment of the genetic background behind cognitive processes in donkeys.

New productive niches can offer new commercial perspectives linked to donkeys' products and human therapeutic or leisure applications. However, no assessment for selection criteria has been carried out yet. First, we assessed the animal inherent features and environmental factors that may potentially influence several cognitive processes in donkeys. Then, we aimed at describing a practical methodo...

Working memory and prefrontal/temporal hemodynamic responses during post-task period in patients with schizophrenia: A multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy study.

The relationship between cognitive impairments and social dysfunction in schizophrenia is widely accepted. Neuroimaging studies in patients with schizophrenia have demonstrated abnormal function in the prefrontal region during various neurocognitive tasks. However, studies exploring the neural basis of these cognitive impairments are still limited. Multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) i...

Distinct brain metabolic patterns separately associated with cognition, motor function, and aging in Parkinson's disease dementia.

We explored whether patients with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) show a distinct spatial metabolic pattern that characterizes cognitive deficits in addition to motor dysfunction. Eighteen patients with PDD underwent 3 separate positron emission tomography sessions with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (for glucose metabolism), fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) n...

Clinical utility and tolerability of transcranial direct current stimulation in mild cognitive impairment.

Neuromodulatory interventions like transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is emerging as a potential therapeutic strategy to promote cognitive function in healthy and pathological aging. There is need for more studies evaluating the utility and tolerability of tDCS in Mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Since MCI is considered as the prodromal stage of dementia, it has emerged as the most imp...

Serum calcium changes and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asian population.

We examined the association between changes in serum calcium levels with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in apparently healthy South Korean subjects.

Diabetes mellitus increased all-cause mortality rate among newly-diagnosed tuberculosis patients in an Asian population: A nationwide population-based study.

To investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on all-cause mortality among patients with newly-diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) in an Asian population. We also identified risk factors for mortality in these patients.

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) mediates cardiac fibrosis and induces diabetic cardiomyopathy.

Cardiovascular diseases account for the major cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with diabetes. The diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a type of diabetic cardiovascular disease, which further directs to the heart failure. The researchers found that diabetes induced cardiac fibrosis plays a vital role in several of the pathological changes that associated with DCM, causing left ventri...

Conflicting interactions of apolipoprotein A and high density lipoprotein cholesterol with microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes.

This study is amid at investigating the associations, and interactions of serum lipid biomarkers with microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D).

The HNF1A mutant Ala180Val: Clinical challenges in determining causality of a rare HNF1A variant in familial diabetes.

Heterozygous mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor-1A (HNF1A) cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3). Our aim was to compare two families with suspected dominantly inherited diabetes and a new HNF1A variant of unknown clinical significance.

Type 1 diabetes and viral infections: What is the relationship?

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the most common chronic metabolic disorder in children. Epigenetic and environmental factors capable of altering the penetrance of major susceptibility genes or capable of increasing the penetrance of low-risk genes are currently thought to play a role in triggering autoimmunity and T1D development. This paper discusses the current knowledge of the role of viruses in T1D. ...

Association of Long-Term Exposure to Transportation Noise and Traffic-Related Air Pollution with the Incidence of Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Evidence for an association between transportation noise and cardiovascular disease has increased; however, few studies have examined metabolic outcomes such as diabetes or accounted for environmental coexposures such as air pollution, greenness, or walkability.

Association of Serum Amyloid A with Kidney Outcomes and All-Cause Mortality in American Indians with Type 2 Diabetes.

Serum amyloid A (SAA) induces inflammation and apoptosis in kidney cells and is found to be causing the pathologic changes that are associated with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Higher serum SAA concentrations were previously associated with increased risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and death in persons with type 2 diabetes and advanced DKD. We explored the prognostic value of SAA in Ameri...

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