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AIDS and HIV Research

19:53 EDT 21st October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Do you have restless leg syndrome? I understood from your eyes.

According to many studies in the literature, there is a strong association between restless leg syndrome and dopaminergic dysfunction. Dopamine is also the major catecholamine in the retina and is also a possible transmitter of the amacrine and interplexiform cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible association between RLS and retinal thickness.

Autoimmune Myopathies: Updates on Evaluation and Treatment.

The major forms of autoimmune myopathies include dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), myositis associated with antisynthetase syndrome (ASS), immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), and inclusion body myositis (IBM). While each of these conditions has unique clinical and histopathological features, they all share an immune-mediated component. These conditions can occur in isolation or can...

Associated valence impacts early visual processing of letter strings: Evidence from ERPs in a cross-modal learning paradigm.

Emotion effects in event-related potentials (ERPs) during reading have been observed at very short latencies of around 100 to 200 ms after word onset. The nature of these effects remains a matter of debate: First, it is possible that they reflect semantic access, which might thus occur much faster than proposed by most reading models. Second, it is possible that associative learning of a word's sh...

Spondylotic traumatic central cord syndrome: a hidden discoligamentous injury?

To revisit the concept of spondylotic traumatic central cord syndrome (TCCS) by assessing the frequency of discoligamentous injury and to correlate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intraoperative findings.

Comparison of Schmallenberg virus sequences isolated from mammal host and arthropod vector.

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is the member of Peribunyaviridae family, which comprises pathogens of importance for human and veterinary medicine. The virus is transmitted only between animals and mainly by biting midges of the genus Culicoides. This study was performed in order to determine SBV genetic diversity and elucidate the host-vector adaptation. All three viral segments were analysed for sequ...

Clinical Sleep-Wake Disorders I: Focus on Hypersomnias and Movement Disorders During Sleep.

Central disorders of hypersomnolence are characterized by daily periods of irrepressible need to sleep or daytime lapses into sleep, as defined in the current version of the International Criteria of Sleep Disorders. Thus, the unifying symptom is excessive daytime sleepiness which is not caused by any other sleep-wake disorder. Relevant disorders including narcolepsy type 1 and 2, idiopathic hyper...

Treatment of Vitamin D Deficiency and Comorbidities: A Review.

Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, skeletal growth and various other metabolic processes. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in India is 50-90% in various studies. Factors such as low sunlight exposure, age-related decrease in cutaneous synthesis, and low dietary intake of vitamin D contribute to the high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy which h...

"Three in One" - Polyautoimmunity with Multiple Autoimmune Syndrome.

Autoimmune disease (AD) may well start off as a single diagnosis and over the years develop into polyautoimmunity and even multiple autoimmune syndromes (MAS) seen in the same patient, as new clinical symptoms and laboratory finding show up in the course of disease. We present a case of MAS who was initially diagnosed to have autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) - hypothyroidism. She was then evaluat...

SLE in a Male Patient Presented Initially as Rowell's Syndrome.

A 22 year old male Indian patient presented with high grade fever, multiple joint pain, low back pain, generalized body ache since 6 months and erythematous pruritic rashes and atypical annular target like lesions over face, arm, leg and back and ulcers on hard palate and buccal mucosa for 2 months. Laboratory investigations showed a speckled pattern anti-nuclear antibody with a titer >1:160 and p...

Percutaneous Transcatheter Treatment of Lutembacher Syndrome.

Lutembacher syndrome is a rare cardiac abnormality characterized by a combination of congenital atrial septal defect (ASD) and acquired rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS). Here we report a case of 18-year-old male with Lutembacher syndrome successfully treated percutaneously with transcatheter Accura balloon valvuloplasty and Amplatzer septal occluder device closure.

Study of Correlation of Serum Vitamin D Levels with Arterial Stiffness and Cardiovascular Morbidity in Elderly Individuals of Western Rajasthan.

Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent condition in western countries as well as in India. Lower level of vitamin D is associated with increased arterial stiffness by activating renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality including increased risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus a...

Multiple Heritable and Acquired Risk Factors in a Case of Recurrent Retinal Vein Occlusion.

A 40 year old female presented with branch retinal vein occlusion in the right eye followed by a second episode, a year later, of central retinal vein occlusion in the left eye. The patient was found to be heterozygous for factor V Leiden and factor V HR2 haplotype G5380A. She had a history of use of oral contraceptives, had reduced levels of tissue plasminogen activator, positive for lupus antico...

HLH - Unusual Trigger and Positive Outcome.

Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), is an uncommon, aggressive and life threatening syndrome of excessive immune activation. We report an unusual case of HLH, in a 34 year old male, who was admitted with Subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebellar contusion in a Neurosurgical Intensive care unit, whose trigger is not clear.

Hepatitis E Virus-Associated Acute Encephalitic Parkinsonism.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common infection worldwide and is an emerging infectious disease in the developed countries. The unique characteristics of HEV is that it displays different epidemiological and clinical characteristics between developing and developed countries. Neurological disorders are emerging extra hepatic manifestations of both acute and chronic Hepatitis E virus infection. We re...

CYP1A1 and 1B1-mediated metabolic pathways of dolutegravir, an HIV-1 integrase inhibitor.

Dolutegravir (DTG), a potent integrase inhibitor, is part of a recommended initial regimen for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Prior reports demonstrated that the clearance of DTG was higher in current smokers than non- smokers, but the mechanism remains unclear. Using a metabolomic approach, M4 (an aldehyde) was identified as a novel metabolite of DTG. In addition, the format...

Drug repurposing prediction for immune-mediated cutaneous diseases using a word-embedding based machine learning approach.

Immune-mediated diseases affect >20% of the population and many autoimmune diseases affect the skin. Drug repurposing (aka repositioning) is a cost-effective approach for revealing drugs that can be used to treat diseases for which they are currently not prescribed. We implemented an efficient bioinformatics approach using "word embedding" to summarize drug information from >20 million articles, a...

A newly isolated Chinese virulent genotype GIIb porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strain: biological characteristics, pathogenicity and immune protective effects as an inactivated vaccine candidate.

Since October 2010, severe porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) outbreaks caused by highly virulent PED virus (PEDV) strains have occurred continuously in the Chinese pig population and caused considerable economic losses. Although PEDV vaccines based on classical PEDV strains have been widely used in China in recent years, the morbidity and mortality in piglets remain high. Therefore, virulent genotyp...

NK-cell responses are biased towards CD16-mediated effector functions in chronic Hepatitis B virus infection.

Phenotypical and functional NK-cell alterations are well described in chronic Hepatitis B virus (cHBV) infection. However, it is largely unknown whether these alterations result from general effects on the overall NK-cell population or the emergence of distinct NK-cell subsets. Indeed, memory-like NK cells emerge in association with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection that is common in cHBV inf...

Polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica alleviated metabolic syndrome in BALB/c mice by normalizing the gut microbiota.

Polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica (LJPs) are reported to have various functional properties, but the effects and mechanisms of LJPs on obesity and its related diseases are unclear. This study demonstrated that LJPs prevented diet-induced obesity in a mice model, and improved obesity-related parameters, e.g. fat accumulation in the liver and adipose tissues, body composition, lipids profile, ...

Effect of Grifola frondosa polysaccharide on anti-tumor activity in combination with 5-Fu in Heps-bearing mice.

GP11 had been reported to have effectively anti-tumor activity by improving the immune function in our previous study. To avoid drawbacks of the 5-Fu, GP11 in combination with 5-Fu was investigated in this study. The results demonstrated that such synergism displayed enhance the anti-tumor activity of 5-Fu. Additionally, a strength effect was also observed in regulating immune function of GP11 and...

FRET-based assay using a three-way junction DNA substrate to identify inhibitors of human cytomegalovirus pUL89 endonuclease activity.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) packages its viral genome using a multi-protein complex often called the terminase complex. The terminase complex promotes the packaging of a single copy of the double-stranded viral DNA genome by cleaving concatemeric genomic DNA during particle assembly. The endonuclease activity necessary to cleave the viral genomic DNA derives from a terminase complex protein, pUL8...

Creation of a transposed mature arteriovenous fistula autograft: a novel approach to treating steal syndrome.

Autogenous arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation is the gold standard of hemodialysis access. However, autologous upper extremity arteriovenous fistulae continue to present significant clinical challenges including failure to mature and steal syndrome. We describe treating a patient with dialysis-associated steal syndrome (DASS) by ligating and then transposing a well-developed, mature upper arm ce...

The effect of a Brief HIV Prevention Program on Risk Reduction Behaviors among Thai Men Diagnosed with Sexually Transmitted Infections.

To test the effectiveness of a brief Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention program on HIV and STIs knowledge, perceived benefits of condom use, risk reduction self-efficacy, risk reduction behaviors and reinfection rate among Thai males with sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Achieving Sustainable Development Goals for HIV/AIDS in the Republic of Congo - Progress, Obstacles and Challenges in HIV/AIDS Health Services.

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic continues to be a major global public health issue. Since 2012, there has been a paucity of information from the RoC on HIV incidence and prevalence rates, national HIV program effectiveness, HAART rollout, patient adherence to treatment, operational and basic science research studies on HIV/AIDS, and donor funding and its impact from the RoC. We con...

Dynamic and significant changes of T-cell subgroups in breast cancer patients during surgery and chemotherapy.

Breast cancer and its surgical treatment and chemotherapy have great impact on the immune system. This study aimed to monitor the various T cells in breast cancer patients and evaluate the immune functions.

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