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Alzheimer's Disease Research

15:57 EDT 26th May 2018 | BioPortfolio

Design, Synthesis and Investigation of New Diphenyl Substituted Pyridazinone Derivatives as Both Cholinesterase and Aβ-Aggregation Inhibitors.

Backround: With respect to the increase in the average life expectancy, Alzheimer Disease (AD), the most common form of age-related dementia, has become a major threat to the population over the age of 65 during the past several decades. The majority of AD treatments are focused on cholinergic and amyloid hypotheses.

Oral health and orofacial pain in people with dementia admitted to acute hospital wards: observational cohort study.

Orofacial pain in people with dementia is difficult to detect, and often under-treated. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of orofacial pain in people with dementia in acute hospitals in the UK. Secondary aims were to examine oral health status and explore associations between orofacial pain and oral health factors.

An expanded theory of Alzheimer's caregiving.

The ancient and cross-culturally prevalent pattern of caregiving suggests that long-term caregiving is species characteristic for humans. If so, then an evolutionary account of the adaptation(s) that underwrite this caregiving is necessary, particularly for the one-sided and long-term nature of Alzheimer's caregiving. Four standard evolutionary explanations are evaluated: kin selection theory, the...

Dissociation of cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β and tau levels in patients with prolonged posttraumatic disorders of consciousness.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the mechanisms that lead to AD after a TBI are unclear, we hypothesize that changes in amyloid-β (Aβ) metabolism and abnormal tau phosphorylation are reasonable candidates.

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: diagnosis and potential therapies.

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by the pathologic deposition of amyloid-beta within cortical and leptomeningeal arteries, arterioles, capillaries and, in rare cases, the venules of the brain. It is often associated with the development of lobar intracerebral hemorrhages but may cause other neurologic symptoms or be asymptomatic. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, such a...

Peripheral complement interactions with amyloid β peptide in Alzheimer's disease: Polymorphisms, structure, and function of complement receptor 1.

Genome-wide association studies consistently show that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the complement receptor 1 (CR1) gene modestly but significantly alter Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Follow-up research has assumed that CR1 is expressed in the human brain despite a paucity of evidence for its function there. Alternatively, erythrocytes contain >80% of the body's CR1, where, in primat...

Cerebral small vessel disease and the risk of dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based evidence.

Cerebral small vessel disease is increasingly linked to dementia.

Association of glucocerebrosidase polymorphisms and mutations with dementia in incident Parkinson's disease.

Both polymorphisms and mutations in glucocerebrosidase (GBA) may influence the development of dementia in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Effect of Alzheimer's disease risk and protective factors on cognitive trajectories in subjective memory complainers.

Cognitive change in people at risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) such as subjective memory complainers is highly variable across individuals.

PET staging of amyloidosis using striatum.

Amyloid PET data are commonly expressed as binary measures of cortical deposition. However, not all individuals with high cortical amyloid will experience rapid cognitive decline. Motivated by postmortem data, we evaluated a three-stage PET classification: low cortical; high cortical, low striatal; and high cortical, high striatal amyloid; hypothesizing this model could better reflect Alzheimer's ...

Role of oral examination in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients: a safe and simple way to detect light chain amyloidosis.

Up to 30% of multiple myeloma (MM) patients have subclinical amyloid deposits. These patients are under-recognized and are more susceptible to drug toxicity, bleeding and death. Early diagnosis and adjustment of treatment are crucial. Biopsies of oral mucosa might be a potentially useful diagnostic tool. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics at present...

Heart transplantation and follow-up treatment with AL-amyloidosis in 5 patients.

The prognosis for patients with cardiac impairment due to AL-amyloid deposition and severe cardiac insufficiency is poor, with a survival median in the order of months. The classical treatment of AL-amyloidosis in combination with cardiac insufficiency is very poorly tolerated and the treatment of such patients is associated with considerably higher mortality than among other patients with AL-amyl...

Non-pharmacological approaches to non-cognitive symptoms in dementia.

Are saving appearance responses typical communication patterns in Alzheimer's disease?

To keep up appearances, people with dementia sometimes pretend to know the correct answer, as seen during administration of neuropsychological tests such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). These saving appearance responses (SARs) of people with dementia often lead to caregivers and/or medical staff underestimating the severity of dementia and impede proper early initiation of treatment. ...

A discrete mathematical model for the aggregation of β-Amyloid.

Dementia associated with the Alzheimer's disease is thought to be correlated with the conversion of the β - Amyloid (Aβ) peptides from soluble monomers to aggregated oligomers and insoluble fibrils. We present a discrete-time mathematical model for the aggregation of Aβ monomers into oligomers using concepts from chemical kinetics and population dynamics. Conditions for the stability and instab...

Time use by family caregivers of elderly with dementia: an integrative review.

To describe the development of measures used between 1993 and 2016 to evaluate time use by family caregivers of elderly with dementia and to find out the patterns of time use identified in the literature.

Polymorphism in disease-related apolipoprotein C-II amyloid fibrils: A structural model for rod-like fibrils.

Human apolipoprotein (apo) C-II is one of several plasma apolipoproteins that form amyloid deposits in vivo and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lipid-free apoC-II readily self-assembles into twisted-ribbon amyloid fibrils but forms straight, rod-like amyloid fibrils in the presence of low concentrations of micellar phospholipids. Charge mutations exerted significantly dif...

Glycosylation status of nicastrin influences catalytic activity and substrate preference of γ-secretase.

γ-Secretase complex, the assembly of nicastrin (NCT), Presenilin (PS), Presenilin Enhancer-2 (PEN-2) and Anterior pharynx defective 1 (Aph-1), catalyzes the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein to generate amyloid-β protein (Aβ), the main culprit of Alzheimer's disease. NCT becomes matured through complex glycosylation and play important role in γ-secretase activity by interacting with cataly...

O-GlcNAcylation and neuronal energy status: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

Since the first clinical case reported more than 100 years ago, it has been a long and winding road to demystify the initial pathological events underling the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fortunately, advanced imaging techniques extended the knowledge regarding AD origin, being well accepted that a decline in brain glucose metabolism occurs during the prodromal phases of AD and is aggravated...

Cerebrospinal Fluid BACE1 Activity and sAβPPβ as Biomarker Candidates of Alzheimer's Disease.

The utility of β-site amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) activity and soluble AβPP β (sAβPPβ) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in detecting Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still elusive.

Putative Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Agonist Therapy and Dementia: An Application of Medicare Hospitalization Claims Data.

Estrogen and hormone replacement therapies to reduce Alzheimer's disease (AD) have yielded conflicting results. However, this study proposes that the well-characterized increase in serum gonadotropins following menopause or andropause are accountable for the increased risk of developing AD among the elderly population.

Naturalistic Driving Study Investigating Self-Regulation Behavior in Early Alzheimer's Disease: A Pilot Study.

Because cognitive processes decline in the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the driving abilities are often affected. The naturalistic driving approach is relevant to study the driving habits and behaviors in normal or critical situations in a familiar environment of participants.

Kainic Acid Impairs the Memory Behavior of APP23 Mice by Increasing Brain Amyloid Load through a Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Dependent Mechanism.

Kainic acid (KA) was recently identified as an epileptogenic and neuroexcitotoxic agent that is responsible for inducing learning and memory deficits in various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism by which KA acts upon AD remains unclear. To this end, we presently investigated the roles of KA in processing amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) and am...

A Retrospective Belgian Multi-Center MRI Biomarker Study in Alzheimer's Disease (REMEMBER).

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition/processing techniques assess brain volumes to explore neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD).

TLR4 Gene Expression and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Alzheimer's Disease and in Response to Hippocampal Deafferentation in Rodents.

One important aspect in Alzheimer's disease pathology is the presence of chronic inflammation. Considering its role as a key receptor in the microglial innate immune system, TLR4 was shown to regulate the binding and phagocytosis of amyloid plaques by microglia in several mouse models of amyloidosis, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. To our knowledge, TLR4 and its associatio...

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