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Alzheimer's Disease Research

09:46 EDT 19th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Circulating APP, NCAM and Aβ serve as biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and the early diagnosis and intervention are important for valid treatment of AD. However, there are few biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of AD. In the present study, circulating APP, NCAM, Aβ40, and Aβ42 were measured in order to identify which marker or combination of markers could be useful, cost-effective and no...

7.0 tesla high resolution MRI study on intracerebral migration of magnet-labeled neural stem cells in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

To observe the migration characteristics of neural stem cells (NSCs) labeled with the MRI contrast agent superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) in the brain of APP/PS1 transgenic mice with Alzheimer's disease (AD) by 7.0 T high resolution MRI.

Phloroglucinol ameliorates cognitive impairments by reducing the amyloid β peptide burden and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus of 5XFAD mice.

Among the various causative factors involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), oxidative stress has emerged as an important factor. Phloroglucinol is a polyphenol component of phlorotannin, which is found at sufficient levels in Ecklonia cava (E. cava). Phloroglucinol has been reported to exert antioxidant activities in various tissues. Previously, we reported that the stereotaxic i...

Sesamin and sesamolin reduce amyloid-β toxicity in a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the brain. At the present, there is no approved drug with a proven disease-modifying effect. Sesame seed (Sesame indicum) has long been known as a healthy food in Southeast Asian countries. Sesame lignans obtained from sesame seed possess antioxidant property that exhibit a variety of b...

The C-terminus of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein M contains trafficking motifs that mediate skin virulence in the SCID-human model of VZV pathogenesis.

Knowledge about the function of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein M is limited; the requirement of gM for skin and neural tropism are unknown. VZV gM contains two predicted YXXΦ trafficking motifs and a dileucine motif in the carboxyl-terminus. We constructed a recombinant VZV with gM truncated from the first YXXΦ and five additional viruses with YXXΦ tyrosine substitutions, alone and in comb...

Case Report of a 63-Year-Old Patient With Alzheimer Disease and a Novel Presenilin 2 Mutation.

Nursing students' experiences of delivering dementia friends sessions to peers.

Nursing students and registered nurses often feel underprepared for their roles in dementia care. Extracurricular activities offer nursing students additional opportunities for professional development. A student-academic partnership initiative was developed in which nursing students delivered dementia friends sessions to their peers before formal taught content.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Risk of Cognitive Decline in Older Adults.

Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation and affects at least 20% of individuals after the age of 65. There is accumulating evidence that obstructive sleep apnea may impact brain structure and function. Recent cohort studies suggest that it is a risk factor for stroke, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Because prevention through treatment of risk...

Prediabetes and diabetes accelerate cognitive decline and predict microvascular lesions: A population-based cohort study.

The impact of prediabetes and diabetes on cognitive decline and the potential underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated whether prediabetes and diabetes accelerate cognitive decline and brain aging, and the initial pathological changes linked to microvascular processes.

Somatic variants in autosomal dominant genes are a rare cause of sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

A minority of patients with sporadic early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibit de novo germ line mutations in the autosomal dominant genes such as APP, PSEN1, or PSEN2. We hypothesized that negatively screened patients may harbor somatic variants in these genes.

Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography Measurements in Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive tool to measure specific retinal layers in the eye. The relationship of retinal spectral domain-OCT (SD-OCT) measurements with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains unclear. Hence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the SD-OCT measurements in AD and MCI.

Quantitative proteomics using tandem mass tags in relation to the acute phase protein response in chicken challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide endotoxin.

The inflammatory response in chickens (Gallus Gallus domesticus) is an integral part of the bird's response to infection. Detailing proteomic changes occurring during infection would be beneficial to the poultry industry, offering opportunities for comparative pathophysiological analysis. The objective of this study was to quantify the changes in the plasma proteome in chickens challenged with lip...

Factor X Deficiency Caused by Nonsecretory Myeloma Successfully Corrected with Bortezomib: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

A 62-year-old female presenting with anemia and extensive hemorrhages is reported. Coagulation tests showed significantly prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time. Decreased levels of clotting factor X activity were determined (5.4%). Bone marrow biopsy revealed neoplastic plasma cells. Serum and urine protein electrophoresis were both negative for monoclonal gammo...

Meloxicam improves cognitive impairment of diabetic rats through COX2-PGE2-EPs-cAMP/pPKA pathway.

Diabetics often face greater risk of cognitive impairment than non-diabetics. However, how to prevent this disease is still unconfirmed. In this study, we investigated the potential protection and mechanism of meloxicam on cognitive impairment in diabetic rats. Diabetic rat model was established with high-fat diet and a small dose of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg). The changes of spatial learning and m...

Lanthanide Functionalized Metal-Organic Coordination Polymer: Toward Novel Turn-on Fluorescent Sensing of Amyloid β-Peptide.

Metal-organic coordination polymers (MOCPs) have been emerging as very attractive nano-materials due to their tunable nature and diverse applications. Herein, using Tb3+ as the luminescence center, 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate (BTC) as building block and Cu2+ as the signal modulator as well as a recognition unit, we propose a novel and effective lanthanide functionalized MOCP (LMOCP) fluorescent se...

Rational Design of Novel Selective Dual-Target Inhibitors of Acetylcholinesterase and Monoamine Oxidase B as Potential anti-Alzheimer's Disease Agents.

Multifunctional agents aiming at cholinesterases (ChEs) and monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are promising therapy for Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Herein, a series of novel propargylamine-modified pyrimidinylthiourea derivatives (1-4) were designed and synthesized as dual inhibitors of ChEs and MAOs with other functions against AD. Most of these derivatives inhibited ChEs and MAOs with IC50 values in the m...

Changes in Glutathione Redox Potential Are Linked to Aβ-Induced Neurotoxicity.

Glutathione is the major low-molecular weight thiol of eukaryotic cells. It is central to one of the two major NADPH-dependent reducing systems and is likely to play a role in combating oxidative stress, a process suggested to play a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the nature and relevance of redox changes in the onset and progression of AD are still uncertain. Here, we combine gen...

Stress-Induced Low Complexity RNA Activates Physiological Amyloidogenesis.

Amyloid bodies (A-bodies) are inducible membrane-less nuclear compartments composed of heterogeneous proteins that adopt an amyloid-like state. A-bodies are seeded by noncoding RNA derived from stimuli-specific loci of the rDNA intergenic spacer (rIGSRNA). This raises the question of how rIGSRNA recruits a large population of diverse proteins to confer A-body identity. Here, we show that long low-...

Definition of Late Onset Alzheimer's Disease and Anticipation Effect of Genome-Wide Significant Risk Variants: Pilot Study of the APOE e4 Allele.

This study aims to investigate the role of apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 influencing the age at onset (AAO) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In AD, the AAO of dementia varies from 40 to 90 years. Usually, AD patients who develop symptoms before the age of 65 are considered as early-onset AD (EOAD). However, considering the heterogeneity of the AD onset, the definition of late-onset AD (LOAD) cannot rely ...

Birth in High Infant Mortality States and Dementia Risk in a Cohort of Elderly African American and White Health Care Members.

Birth in areas with high infant mortality rates (IMRs) has been linked to worse long-term health outcomes, yet it is completely unknown if it impacts dementia risk.

Functional Activity and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Normal Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging.

The Effect of Changing the Amyloid β42 Cut-off of Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers on Alzheimer Disease Diagnosis in a Memory Clinic Population in Norway.

Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia-like Syndrome With Novel Heterozygous TREM2 Frameshift Mutation.

Effects of APOE ε4 on neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and cognition in prodromal Alzheimer's disease.

Apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its importance for the clinical and biological heterogeneity in AD is unclear, particularly at the prodromal stage. We analyzed 151 prodromal AD patients (44 APOE ε4-negative and 107 APOE ε4-positive) from the BioFINDER study. We tested cognition, 18F-flutemetamol β-amyloid (Aβ) positron emission tomogra...

Evaluation of CSF neurofilament light chain levels as a routine biomarker in a memory clinic.

Systematic evaluation of biomarkers in representative populations is needed to validate their clinical utility. In this work, we assessed the diagnostic performance of cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain (NfL) in a neurocognitive clinical setting. A total of 51 patients with different cognitive clinical syndromes and 11 cognitively normal individuals were evaluated in a memory clinic in ...

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