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Anesthesiology Research

21:42 EDT 19th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Acute oral toxicity and anti-inflammatory evaluation of methanolic extract of Rotula aquatica roots in Wistar rats.

The plant Rotula aquatica Lour. was traditionally well known due to its large number of pharmacological action and medicinal uses. The plant is a necessary component of many Ayurvedic drug preparations since historical times. It is widely used as a crucial ancient drug for kidney and bladder stones.

CSF-1 in Inflammatory and Arthritic Pain Development.

Pain is one of the most debilitating symptoms in many diseases for which there is inadequate management and understanding. CSF-1, also known as M-CSF, acts via its receptor (CSF-1R, c-Fms) to regulate the development of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and to act locally in tissues to control macrophage numbers and function. It has been implicated in the control of neuropathic pain via a central ac...

FDA Approval Summary: Pembrolizumab for Recurrent Locally Advanced or Metastatic Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma Expressing PD-L1.

On September 22, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval for pembrolizumab (Keytruda, Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ) for the treatment of patients with recurrent, locally advanced or metastatic, gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma with disease progression on or after two or more systemic therapies, including fluoropyrimidine-...

Phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with neurofibromatosis-1.

Phaeochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PHAEO/PG) are linked to hereditary syndromes including neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). Current guidelines do not recommend biochemical screening for PHAEO/PG in asymptomatic or normotensive patients with NF-1. This strategy may miss preventable morbidities in those patients who ultimately present with symptomatic PHAEO/PG. Our aim was to review the literature an...

Effects of perioperative tight glycemic control on postoperative outcomes: a meta-analysis.

The optimal glycemic target during the perioperative period is still controversial. We aimed to explore the effects of tight glycemic control (TGC) on surgical mortality and morbidity. PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were searched from January 1, 1946 to February 28, 2018. Appropriate trails comparing the postoperative outcomes (mortality, hypoglycemic events, acute kidney injury, etc.) between diffe...

Neck-specific exercise may reduce radiating pain and signs of neurological deficits in chronic whiplash - Analyses of a randomized clinical trial.

Up to 90% of people with neurological deficits following a whiplash injury do not recover and cervical muscle dysfunction is common. The aim of this multicentre, randomized controlled trial was to examine whether two versions of neck-specific exercise or prescription of physical activity (PPA) can improve radiating arm pain and clinical signs that can be associated with neurological deficits in pe...

Efficacy of commonly prescribed analgesics in the management of osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Pain management is a cornerstone of osteoarthritis (OA) management. The aim of this review is to obtain current, literature-based estimates of the effect of common pharmacologic treatments on pain reduction in OA.

Analysis of risk factors for perioperative mortality in elderly patients with intertrochanteric fracture.

To investigate risk factors for perioperative death in elderly patients with intertrochanteric fracture.

Involvement of HPI-axis in anesthesia with Lippia alba essential oil citral and linalool chemotypes: gene expression in the secondary responses in silver catfish.

In teleost fish, stress initiates a hormone cascade along the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis to provoke several physiological reactions in order to maintain homeostasis. In aquaculture, a number of factors induce stress in fish, such as handling and transport, and in order to reduce the consequences of this, the use of anesthetics has been an interesting alternative. Essential oil (E...

Proportionate palliative sedation and the giving of a deadly drug: the conundrum.

Among the oldest extant medical ethics, the Hippocratic Oath prohibits the giving of a deadly drug, regarding this act as an egregious violation of a medical ethic that is exclusively therapeutic. Proportionate palliative sedation involves the administration of a deadly drug. Hence it seems to violate the venerable Hippocratic promise associated with the dawn of Western medicine not to give a dead...

Sources of Stress among Adults with Co-occurring Drug Use and Depressive Symptoms.

Stress, drug use, and depression are interconnected, but less is understood about sources of stress among adults with co-occurring drug use and depressive symptoms. The current study aimed to identify sources of stress and correlates among these adults. Data come from a cross-sectional baseline survey, including participants (n = 336) 18 to 55 years old, who reported past 6-month heroin or co...

Defining Regional Differences in Drug-Induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: A Tool to Improve Drug Safety?

A randomised trial of serratus anterior plane block for analgesia after thoracoscopic surgery.

We evaluated the effect of pre-operative serratus anterior plane block on postoperative pain and opioid consumption after thoracoscopic surgery. We randomly allocated 89 participants to block with 30 ml ropivacaine 0.375% (n = 44), or no block without placebo or sham procedure (n = 45). We analysed results from 42 participants in each group. Serratus anterior plane block reduced mean (SD) remifent...

Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B mono-infection.

Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is indicated for adult patients with chronic HBV infection with compensated liver disease at a dose of 25mg orally daily. TAF is a more stable prodrug in the plasma than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), leading to decreased plasma exposure of tenofovir. Decreased exposure is thought to reduce the risk of long-term TDF toxicities, such as nephrotoxicity and decreased...

Current and Investigational Agents Targeting the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Pathway.

Prevalent molecular alterations of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway are found on solid tumors and are expressed in leukocytes, making it a desirable target in both solid and hematologic malignancies. In recent years, two agents targeting this pathway have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, idelalisib and copanlisib, with many others under investigation. Du...

EUS-guided celiac ganglion radiofrequency ablation versus celiac plexus neurolysis for palliation of pain in pancreatic cancer: a randomized controlled trial (with videos).

Although frequently performed, the efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN) for palliation of pain in pancreatic cancer is suboptimal. Recently, endoscopic ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (EUS-RFA) has been proposed as a palliative treatment option for pancreatic neoplasms. We performed a single-blind, randomized trial to compare the effectiveness of EU...

Critical dynamics, anesthesia and information integration: Lessons from multi-scale criticality analysis of voltage imaging data.

Critical dynamics are thought to play an important role in neuronal information-processing: near critical networks exhibit neuronal avalanches, cascades of spatiotemporal activity that are scale-free, and are considered to enhance information capacity and transfer. However, the exact relationship between criticality, awareness, and information integration remains unclear. To characterize this rela...

The efficacy and safety of methylprednisolone for pain control after total knee arthroplasty: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Pain management after arthroplasties has become a serious problem. We perform a meta-analysis from randomized controlled trial (RCTs) to examine the efficacy and safety of methylprednisolone in the setting of postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel diphenyl ether derivatives against drug susceptible and resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

In our efforts to develop druggable diphenyl ethers as potential antitubercular agents, a series of novel diphenyl ether derivatives (5a-f, 6a-f) were designed and synthesized. The representative compounds showed promising in vitro activity against drug susceptible, isoniazid resistant and multi drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with MIC values of 1.56 μg/mL (6b), 6.25 μg/mL (...

The role of CaMKII in Neuropathic Pain and Fear Memory in Chronic Constriction Injury in Rats.

In this study, we sought to observe the effects of Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) on neuropathic pain and fear memory in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI). Rats were randomly divided into the Sham, Control, CCI and m-AIP groups. In the m-AIP group, an intrathecal injection of m-AIP, the specific antagonist of CaMKII, was given either pretreatment or posttreatment...

Microbial Biotransformation - An Important Tool for the Study of Drug Metabolism.

1. Metabolite identification is an integral part of both preclinical and clinical drug discovery and development. Synthesis of drug metabolites is often required to support definitive identification, preclinical safety studies and clinical trials. 2. Here we describe the use of microbial biotransformation as a tool to produce drug metabolites, complementing traditional chemical synthesis and other...

How Should Refusal of Tracheostomy as Part of an Adolescent's Perioperative Planned Intubation Be Regarded?

Here we present a case of a patient in terminal respiratory failure refusing to consent to emergent tracheostomy in the setting of an anticipated difficult intubation. We examine ethical concerns that arise from deviations from the standard of care in the operative setting and the anesthesiologist's sense of culpability. Finally, we will review the ethical arguments and guidelines that support ane...

Randomized Clinical Trial of IV Acetaminophen as an Analgesic Adjunct for Older Adults with Acute Severe Pain.

Older adults are at risk for undertreatment of pain. We examined IV acetaminophen as an analgesic adjunct to IV opioids in the care of older emergency department (ED) patients with acute severe pain.

Impact of transporters and enzymes from blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and brain parenchyma on CNS drug uptake.

In parallel with the blood-brain barrier (BBB), transporters and enzymes on the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) serve as the first barrier for drug brain uptake. In addition, their expressions on the brain parenchyma are considered as the secondary barrier for central nervous system (CNS) drug delivery. Currently, a lack of information on transporters and enzymes expressed on both BCSFB ...

Long-term antibody persistence against hepatitis B in adolescents 14-15-years of age vaccinated with 4 doses of hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine in infancy.

We evaluated antibody persistence against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in adolescents previously vaccinated with a hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-HBV-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), as part of the national newborn immunization program in Germany. We also assessed the anamnestic response to a challenge dose of a monovalent HBV...

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