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Antiretroviral therapy Research

01:00 EST 16th February 2019 | BioPortfolio

Mucosal cell populations may contribute to peripheral immune abnormalities in HIV-infected subjects introducing cART with moderate immune-suppression.

HIV infection causes the progressive depletion of CD4+ T-lymphocytes and profound modifications of T-cell homeostasis, which persist despite virologically-suppressive treatment and have been linked to a worse clinical outcome. Enduring alterations of the gastrointestinal tract may represent the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of these phenomena. Twenty-six HIV-infected subjects were assessed over...

The association of choroidal structure and its response to anti-VEGF treatment with the short-time outcome in pachychoroid neovasculopathy.

Pachychoroid neovasculopathy (PNV) shares some anatomical features with other pachychoroid spectrum diseases, but little is known about the characteristics on the treatment with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We investigated the effect of choroidal structure and responses to anti-VEGF on the prognosis of pachychoroid neovasculopathy (PNV) and other types of neovascular age-related...

Taxane-based chemohormonal therapy for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer: A Cochrane Review.

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has historically been the main management option for men with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. Over the last two decades, a number of agents have demonstrated a benefit in castration-resistant disease[1] and there has been interest to employ these drugs earlier in the disease course when the cancer is hormone-sensitive. Taxane-based chemotherapy has...

Relative risk of tuberculosis in patients with rheumatic diseases managed with anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha therapy: A nationwide cohort study.

Anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha (anti-TNF-α) therapy is known to raise the risk of granulomatous infections, leading to development of risk management strategies at national or global level. This study aimed to determine the relative risk (RR) of tuberculosis (TB) due to anti-TNF-α usage in patients with rheumatologic diseases (RDs) in a nationwide basis.

Phage Therapy: A Renewed Approach to Combat Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria.

Phage therapy, long overshadowed by chemical antibiotics, is garnering renewed interest in Western medicine. This stems from the rise in frequency of multi-drug-resistant bacterial infections in humans. There also have been recent case reports of phage therapy demonstrating clinical utility in resolving these otherwise intractable infections. Nevertheless, bacteria can readily evolve phage resista...

The predictive value of neural reward processing in exposure therapy outcome: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

Exposure is the gold standard treatment for phobic anxiety and is thought to represent the clinical application of extinction learning. Reward sensitivity might however also represent a predictive factor for exposure therapy outcome, as this therapy promotes positive experiences and involves positive comments by the therapist. We hypothesized that high reward sensitivity, as expressed by elevated ...

Anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects of Scutellaria strigillosa Hemsley extracts against vascular smooth muscle cells.

The abnormal increase in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration are critical events in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including restenosis and atherosclerosis. The dried roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (common name: Huangqin in China) have been confirmed to possess beneficial effects on CVD by clinical and modern pharmacological studies. Flavonoi...

Aromatic constituents from Ganoderma lucidum and their neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities.

Five new aromatic compounds, designed as lucidumins A-D (1-4) and lucidimine E (9), along with seven known aromatic compounds (5-8, 10-12) were isolated from Ganoderma lucidum. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic method. Bioactive evaluation showed that compounds 2-4 and 6-10 displayed remarkable neuroprotective activities against corticosterone-induced PC12 cell damage, with the cel...

Osimertinib plus durvalumab versus osimertinib monotherapy in EGFR T790M-positive NSCLC following previous EGFR-TKI therapy: CAURAL brief report.

Osimertinib is a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI). Durvalumab is an anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody. The Phase III open-label CAURAL trial (NCT02454933) investigated osimertinib plus durvalumab versus osimertinib monotherapy in patients with EGFR-TKI sensitizing and T790M mutation-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and disease ...

Rapid Development of Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis after Treatment of Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer with Second-Generation Androgen Receptor Antagonists.

Previous studies have described the association of spinal epidural lipomatosis with several conditions including chronic steroid therapy, Cushing's syndrome, obesity, Paget's disease, and hypothyroidism. We present a report of rapid development of spinal epidural lipomatosis after treatment with second-generation anti-androgen therapy, a new strategy for treatment of metastatic castration-resistan...

Anti-inflammatory drug approach: Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel pyrazolo3,4-dpyrimidine compounds.

In this study, the acid chlorides of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine compounds were prepared and reacted with a number of nucleophiles. The novel compounds were experimentally tested via enzyme assay and they showed cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition activity in the middle micro molar range (4b had a COX-1 IC of 26 µM and a COX-2 IC of 34 µM, 3b had a COX-1 IC of 19 µM and a COX-2 IC of 31 µM, 3a h...

Diagnostic Strategy and Therapeutic Dilemma in Acute Posterior and Panuveitis.

Acute posterior and panuveitis mostly affect younger patients and affect both eyes in more than half of cases. Because of the severe consequences in the clinical course, rapid and broad differential diagnosis are critical steps. Permanent loss of vision after a delay in starting therapy and the initiation of ineffective treatment are both serious risks. The initial diagnostic classification is bas...

Tolerability of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy in an HIV-Infected Cohort of Paediatric and Adolescent Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy from a Resource-Limited Setting: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Treating patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to prevent development of active disease is an essential strategy for eliminating TB. There are concerns regarding the use of isoniazid due to the potential for hepatotoxicity. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of adverse hepatic events after isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) commencement in a cohort of HIV-infected pae...

Combination therapy of an iNKT cell ligand and CD40-CD154 blockade establishes islet allograft acceptance in nonmyeloablative bone marrow transplant recipients.

Islet transplantation is an effective therapeutic option for type 1 diabetes. Although maintenance immunosuppression therapy is required to prevent allogeneic rejection and recurrence of autoimmunity, long-term allograft survival has not yet been achieved partly because of its adverse effects. The induction of donor-specific immunotolerance is a promising approach for long-term allograft survival ...

Efficacy of combined radiotherapy and anti-programmed death 1 therapy in acral and mucosal melanoma.

Some studies showed that clinical response to immune check point inhibitors is lower in acral and mucosal melanoma than in cutaneous melanoma. Although the synergistic effect of radiotherapy (RT) and ipilimumab has been reported in patients with brain metastasis, the efficacy of combined RT and anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) therapy for acral and mucosal melanoma is unclear. The present study aime...

HIV-associated thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura: A retrospective cohort study during the anti-retroviral therapy era.

HIV-associated thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura (TTP) is thought to represent the majority of current TTP diagnoses in South Africa (SA).

Effect of essential oil from Ageratum fastigiatum on beta-integrin (CD18) expression on human lymphocytes stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate in vitro.

Agareratum fastigiatum is a Brazilian medicinal plant used as anti-inflammaroty and for wound healing by the folk medicine. In vitro and in vivo studies involving A. fastigiatum essential oil (EOAF) showed indications of anti-inflammatory activity, however, its effect on membrane integrins involved on cell migration is still unclear. Hence, it was evaluated in the present study the effect of EOAF ...

De-escalation versus standard dual antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Switching from a potent P2Y blocker to clopidogrel is not uncommon for antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of this de-escalation strategy. Medical literature databases were searched for analysis comparing continued potent antiplatelet therapy and switching to clopidogrel with no language res...

Magnitude and associated factors of cytopenias among antiretroviral therapy naïve Human Immunodeficiency Virus infected adults in Dessie, Northeast Ethiopia.

Hematologic abnormalities involving peripheral blood cell cytopenias are strong predictors of morbidity, mortality and poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes of HIV infected individuals. However, limited studies are conducted in resource-limited settings of sub-Saharan Africa that have addressed the magnitude and associated factors of cytopenias. This study aimed to investigate the magnitude a...

Short-Term Effects of Manual Therapy in Patients After Surgical Fixation of Ankle and/or Hindfoot Fracture: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Multi-site double blind randomized clinical trial.

Treatment Effect Sizes for Pain and Disability Are Moderated by the Delivery Approach for Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy in a Population With Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review With a Meta-Regression Approach.

Systematic review.

A novel point-of-care oral anti-HCV assay: Is it reliable for screening hepatitis C virus infection in the era of direct-acting antivirals?

Recent advance in the direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) offers the potentials to eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide and makes universal screening more urgent. A point-of-care (POC) oral anti-HCV assay, the Fortune assay, was developed and its performance was evaluated. Individuals with or without HCV infection were recruited in three Centers. Paired oral and serum samples were tested using ...

Concerns and side effects of azathioprine during adalimumab induction and maintenance therapy for Japanese patients with Crohn's disease: a sub-analysis of a prospective randomized clinical trial (DIAMOND study).

Combining a thiopurine with the human anti-tumor necrosis factor- monoclonal antibody adalimumab for Crohn's disease (CD) treatment is controversial with regard to efficacy and safety. By conducting a sub-analysis of a multicenter, randomized, prospective, open-label trial (the DIAMOND study, UMIN registration number 000005146), we studied the risk of discontinuation of thiopurine in combinatio...

PBI-4050 Reduces Pulmonary Hypertension, Lung fibrosis and Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Heart Failure.

Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) causes lung remodelling with myofibroblasts proliferation and fibrosis leading to a restrictive lung syndrome with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. PBI-4050 is a first-in-class anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative compound. The present study evaluated the therapeutic impact of PBI-4050 on PH ...

Anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand antibody treatment increases osteoclastogenesis-promoting interleukin-8 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

The receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) is an important factor for osteoclastogenesis and contributes to the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); thus, the anti-RANKL antibody (Ab) has been expected to protect joint destruction in RA patients. Interleukin (IL)-8 also has osteoclastogenic activity; however, the role of IL-8 in the bone pathology of RA as well as the relat...

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