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Anxiety Disorders Research

00:40 EDT 21st October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Pediatric Loss-of-Control Eating and Anxiety in Relation to Components of Metabolic Syndrome.

 Pediatric loss-of-control (LOC) eating is associated with, and predictive of, gains in adiposity and adverse metabolic outcomes. In addition, some preliminary data suggest that anxiety may exacerbate the relationship of LOC eating with weight and metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related measures. We therefore examined whether anxiety moderated the relationship between LOC eating and body mass index z ...

Trajectories of grief, depression, and posttraumatic stress in disaster-bereaved people.

Previous latent trajectory studies in adult bereaved people have identified individual differences in reactions postloss. However, prior findings may not reflect the complete picture of distress postloss, because they were focused on depression symptoms following nonviolent death. We examined trajectories of symptom-levels of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD), depression, and posttrau...

Audience size influences actors' anxiety and associated postures on stage.

Public performance is a reported source of anxiety. While the relationship between emotion and postural laterality is well-known in animals, few studies have tested the possible link between audience effect, anxiety and head orientation in humans. The Valence-Specific Hypothesis posits that the left/right sides of the brain are specialized for processing positive/negative emotions respectively. He...

Effects of post-exposure naps on exposure therapy for social anxiety.

Exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) utilizes fear extinction, a memory process enhanced by sleep. We investigated whether naps following exposure sessions might improve symptoms and biomarkers in response to social stress in adults undergoing 5-week exposure-based group SAD therapy. Thirty-two participants aged 18-39 (18 females) with SAD were randomized. Before and after treatment,...

Cognitive Flexibility Predicts PTSD Symptoms: Observational and Interventional Studies.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, severe and tenacious psychopathological consequence of traumatic events. Neurobehavioral mechanisms underlying PTSD pathogenesis have been identified, and may serve as risk-resilience factors during the early aftermath of trauma exposure. Longitudinally documenting the neurobehavioral dimensions of early responses to trauma may help characteriz...

A Recovery Capital and Stress-Buffering Model for Post-deployed Military Parents.

We tested a recovery capital model for military families employing the After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT) randomized control trial, a longitudinal preventive intervention study of 336 post-deployed military parents. Recovery resources included measures of social capital (parenting support, observed partner support behaviors), personal capital (parenting efficacy, education), and co...

High Il-1β Serum as a Predictor of Decreased Cognitive Function in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Patients.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) exerts a significant impact on society with regards to physical, affective, and cognitive impairment. The consequent cognitive sequelae include a problem in memory, attention, concentration, and processing speed. Following traumatic brain injury, inflammatory response developed, characterised by increased interleukin 1-β (IL-1β) levels in the blood. IL 1-β at pathop...

Corticosteroid phobia (corticophobia) in parents of young children with atopic dermatitis and their health care providers.

Adherence to topical corticosteroids is low among atopic dermatitis patients and their parents. This can lead to treatment failure and decreased quality of life.

When Nowhere Is Safe: Interpersonal Trauma and Attachment Adversity as Antecedents of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Developmental Trauma Disorder.

Developmental trauma disorder (DTD) has been proposed as clinical framework for the sequelae of complex trauma exposure in children. In this study, we investigated whether DTD is associated with different traumatic antecedents than posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In a multisite sample of 236 children referred from pediatric or mental health treatment, DTD was assessed using the DTD Structure...

The Impact of Military and Nonmilitary Experiences on Marriage: Examining the Military Spouse's Perspective.

There has been conflicting research regarding direct association between deployments and marital quality, particularly from the military spouse's perspective. In the current study, we sought to extend past research by examining the direct association between both military and nonmilitary experiences and military spouse marital quality using 2011-2013 baseline data from the Millennium Cohort Family...

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Co-Occurring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorders in Veterans: Pilot Treatment Outcomes.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) frequently co-occur and are associated with worse outcomes together than either disorder alone. A lack of consensus regarding recommendations for treating PTSD-AUD exists, and treatment dropout is a persistent problem. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), a transdiagnostic, mindfulness- and acceptance-based form of behavior th...

Maladaptive Eating in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Population-Based Examination of Typologies and Medical Condition Correlates.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and eating pathology are frequently comorbid, and both are independent risk factors for various medical conditions. Using population-based data collected as part of the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III; N = 36,309), the primary objectives of this study were to (a) identify eating pathology classes among PTSD ...

Gender-Moderated Pathways From Childhood Abuse and Neglect to Late-Adolescent Substance Use.

Substantial research has linked childhood maltreatment to the development of substance use in adolescence. However, gender differences in the mechanisms that connect child abuse and neglect to substance use remain unclear. In this study, we applied multiple-group structural equation modeling in a sample of 1,161 youths (boys, n = 552; girls, n = 609) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse an...

Treatment Efficacy for Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Latent Class Trajectories of Treatment Response and Their Predictors.

Evidence suggests that veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have a poorer treatment response than nonveterans.  In this study, we explored heterogeneity in treatment response for 960 veterans in the United Kingdom with PTSD who had been offered a residential intervention consisting of a mixture of group sessions and individual trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT). Th...

Facilitators and Barriers to Seeking Mental Health Care Among Primary Care Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common in primary care patients, many do not seek mental health treatment. Existing research on barriers and facilitators to receiving PTSD treatment are not specific to primary care patients. In this study, we sought to understand the psychosocial concerns, treatment barriers, and treatment facilitators among non-treatment-seeking primary care vete...

An Examination of the Role of Difficulties Regulating Positive Emotions in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Emotion regulation difficulties have been theoretically and empirically linked to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous research, however, has focused almost exclusively on difficulties regulating negative emotions. In this study, we explored the nature of difficulties regulating positive emotions in PTSD. Participants were women who had experienced domestic violence (N = 210; 48.6% Afric...

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Temperament, and the Pathway to Cellular Senescence.

Traumatic stress is thought to be associated with shortened telomere length (TL) in leukocytes, an age-related marker of increased risk for cellular senescence, although findings thus far have been mixed. We assessed associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, temperament, and TL in a sample of 453 White, non-Hispanic, middle-aged, trauma-exposed male and female vet...

Predictors of Outcome and Residual Symptoms Following Trauma-Focused Psychotherapy in Police Officers With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Police officers exposed to potentially traumatic events (PTE) are at a heightened risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Little is known about trauma-focused psychotherapy outcomes in the police. In this naturalistic study, we evaluated whether PTE exposure and baseline clinical characteristics predicted PTSD symptom reduction during treatment and residual PTSD symptoms posttreat...

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Emerging Adult Sexual Minority Men: Implications for Assessment and Treatment of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

Emerging adulthood (EA) is a developmental period marked by unique challenges that affect health including burgeoning occupational, relational, and financial stability; and increased risk taking in terms of sexual behavior(s) and substance use. Data were collected from 296 HIV-uninfected sexual minority men with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. We analyzed baseline assessment data from a mu...

Social Support Moderates the Association Between Traumatic Life Events and Depression Among Migrant and Nonmigrant Men in Almaty, Kazakhstan.

Across cultures, experiencing traumatic life events, particularly violence, is a salient predictor of depression. Some previous findings have shown that social support can serve as a buffer in the association between traumatic life events and depression (i.e., the buffering hypothesis) in that individuals with a high level of social support have a decreased or nonexistent association between traum...

Longitudinal Development of Primary and Secondary Posttraumatic Growth in Aging Veterans and Their Wives: Domain-Specific Trajectories.

Posttraumatic growth (PTG), the positive psychological transformations that follow traumatic events, affects both direct survivors (primary PTG) and their significant others (secondary PTG). Though primary and secondary PTG have been widely investigated in the literature, their long-term trajectories decades after a traumatic event, especially as survivors enter older age, remain largely uninvesti...

An affective space view on depression and anxiety.

The circumplex model for core affect is among the most prominent characterizations of emotion and has received extensive empirical support. However, no prior study exists that connects the measurement of depression and anxiety with the core affect structure and the bipolar dimensions of arousal and valence it includes.

Supplementation with Robuvit® in post-traumatic stress disorders associated to high oxidative stress.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated to recurrent, obsessive recollection of severe traumatic events. This condition is still not completely understood. Elective treatment of PTSD is psychotherapy. Standardized supplements, used for improving chronic fatigue syndrome (i.e. Robuvit®, Horphag Research Ltd) can also be used to control some of the symptoms associated to PTSD, as well a...

Integrated genetic, epigenetic, and gene set enrichment analyses identify NOTCH as a potential mediator for PTSD risk after trauma: Results from two independent African cohorts.

The risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases with the number of traumatic event types experienced (trauma load) in interaction with other psychobiological risk factors. The NOTCH (neurogenic locus notch homolog proteins) signaling pathway, consisting of four different trans-membrane receptor proteins (NOTCH1-4), constitutes an evolutionarily well-conserved intercellular co...

Examination of ataque de nervios and ataque de nervios like events in a diverse sample of adults with anxiety disorders.

Ataque de nervios (ataque) represents a cultural syndrome of paroxysmic symptoms that is described as an expression of distress among Latinx (gender-inclusive term for people of Latin-American descent). Some ataques are symptomatically similar to DSM-5-defined panic attacks, but also may include acute anger, grief, suicidal/violent behavior, or dissociation, and can last for hours or even days. At...

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