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Autism Research

10:20 EST 22nd January 2019 | BioPortfolio

Cross-Cultural Validation of the Polish Version of the ADI-R, Including New Algorithms for Toddlers and Young Preschoolers.

Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is one of the most widely used standardized diagnostic instruments for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This article presents findings from the validation of the Polish version of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R-PL), including new algorithms for toddlers and preschoolers. The validation group consisted of 125 participants: 65 with Autism Sp...

Inter-Rater Agreement for the Milestones and Barriers Assessments of the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP).

We determined inter-rater agreement for the VB-MAPP, an instrument sometimes used in planning educational goals and evaluating intervention effects for young people with autism. A pair of raters independently rated each of 32 children diagnosed with autism. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the total Milestones and Barrier scores were 0.876 and 0.629, respectively, indicating good and modera...

Amelioration of autism-like social deficits by targeting histone methyltransferases EHMT1/2 in Shank3-deficient mice.

Many of the genes disrupted in autism are identified as histone-modifying enzymes and chromatin remodelers, most prominently those that mediate histone methylation/demethylation. However, the role of histone methylation enzymes in the pathophysiology and treatment of autism remains unknown. To address this, we used mouse models of haploinsufficiency of the Shank3 gene (a highly penetrant monogenic...

Sleep problems and anxiety from 2 to 8 years and the influence of autistic traits: a longitudinal study.

Whether or not childhood sleep problems and anxiety occur simultaneously, or one precedes the other, and any effect of autistic traits on this relationship remains unclear. We investigated longitudinal associations between sleep and anxiety at 2 years and sleep and anxiety at 8 years controlling for demographic variables. We also examined the additional influence of autistic traits at 2 years o...

Characterization of Autism Spectrum Disorder across the Age Span by Intrinsic Network Patterns.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by abnormal functional organization of brain networks, which may underlie the cognitive and social impairments observed in affected individuals. The present study characterizes unique intrinsic connectivity within- and between- neural networks in children through to adults with ASD, relative to controls. Resting state fMRI data were analyzed in 204 s...

Atypical Auditory Brainstem Response and Protein Expression Aberrations Related to ASD and Hearing Loss in the Adnp Haploinsufficient Mouse Brain.

Autism is a wide spread neurodevelopmental disorder with growing morbidity rates, affecting more boys than girls worldwide. Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) was recently recognized as a leading gene accounted for 0.17% of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases globally. Respectively, mutations in the human ADNP gene (ADNP syndrome), cause multi-system body dysfunctions with apparent...

DAPTA, a C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) antagonist attenuates immune aberrations by downregulating Th9/Th17 immune responses in BTBR T Itpr3tf/J mice.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. BTBR T Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice, a preclinical autistic model featuring ASD symptoms as defined by social relations, was used in this study. We evaluated the potentially protective effect of D-Ala-peptide T-amide (DAPTA), a selective C-C c...

Parenting behavior and the development of children with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders in which multiple genetic and environmental factors play roles. Symptoms of deficits in social communication and restrictive, repetitive behavioral patterns emerge early in a child's development. While parents do not cause these difficulties, impairments in social relatedness can strain parent child interactions and parental stress c...

Hypothesis-driven investigations of diverse pharmacological targets in two mouse models of autism.

Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental syndrome diagnosed primarily by persistent deficits in social interactions and communication, unusual sensory reactivity, motor stereotypies, repetitive behaviors, and restricted interests. No FDA-approved medical treatments exist for the diagnostic symptoms of autism. Here we interrogate multiple pharmacological targets in two distinct mouse models...

Atomoxetine for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents with autism: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Atomoxetine is prescribed to children with autism spectrum disorder having symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We sought to examine the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine in this population. After screening for inclusion criteria, we identified three randomized placebo controlled trials involving 241 children. We assessed internal validity using standard Cochrane Risk of bias too...

Gut Microbes Join the Social Network.

The gut microbiome is increasingly implicated in the regulation of social behavior across model organisms. In this issue of Neuron, Sgritta et al. (2018) examine the role of the gut microbiome in social reward circuits and sociability in three mouse models of autism spectrum disorder.

Another Step Toward Defining an Immune-Mediated Subtype of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Association of Food Allergy and Other Allergic Conditions With Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children.

The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in US children has increased during the past decades. Immunologic dysfunction has recently emerged as a factor associated with ASD. Although children with ASD are more likely to have gastrointestinal disorders, little is known about the association between food allergy and ASD.

Association Between Autism Spectrum Disorders With or Without Intellectual Disability and Depression in Young Adulthood.

Depression is a frequently occurring mental disorder and may be common in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but there is a lack of longitudinal population-based studies examining this association. Whether any increased risk of depression in ASD has a shared familial basis and whether it differs by co-occurring intellectual disability is not well known.

Evaluation of Differences in Temporal Synchrony Between Brain Regions in Individuals With Autism and Typical Development.

Despite reports of widespread but heterogeneous atypicality of functional connectivity in individuals with autism, little is known regarding the temporal dynamics of functional brain connections and how they relate to autistic traits.

Developmental Trajectories of Autonomic Functioning in Autism from Birth to Early Childhood.

Deficits in social engagement emerge in autism during the infant and toddler period and may be related to emotion regulation and stress response systems. This study examined patterns of growth in autonomic functioning related to autism diagnosis and addresses the hypothesis that there are differences in autonomic functioning related to autism in infancy. Heart rate (HR) and respiratory sinus arrhy...

Automated identification for autism severity level: EEG analysis using empirical mode decomposition and second order difference plot.

Previous automated EEG-based diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using various nonlinear EEG analysis methods were limited to distinguish only children with ASD from those normally developed without approaching their autistic features severity.

A Nervous System-Specific Model of Creatine Transporter Deficiency Recapitulates the Cognitive Endophenotype of the Disease: a Longitudinal Study.

Mutations in creatine (Cr) transporter (CrT) gene lead to cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome-1 (CTD), an orphan neurodevelopmental disorder presenting with brain Cr deficiency, intellectual disability, seizures, movement and autistic-like behavioral disturbances, language and speech impairment. We have recently generated a murine model of CTD obtained by ubiquitous deletion of 5-7 exons in the ...

Deletion of Semaphorin 3F in Interneurons Is Associated with Decreased GABAergic Neurons, Autism-like Behavior, and Increased Oxidative Stress Cascades.

Autism and epilepsy are diseases which have complex genetic inheritance. Genome-wide association and other genetic studies have implicated at least 500+ genes associated with the occurrence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including the human semaphorin 3F (Sema 3F) and neuropilin 2 (NRP2) genes. However, the genetic basis of the comorbid occurrence of autism and epilepsy is unknown. The aberran...

Identifying Language for People on the Autism Spectrum: A Scoping Review.

Person-first language is considered a central component to recovery oriented person-centred care; however, there is a growing adoption of identify-first language among autistic advocates. Mental health nurses require awareness of critical autism issues given the high prevalence of comorbid psychopathology. This scoping review of literature from 2010 to 2018 regarding identifying language for peopl...

Inferring power and dominance from dyadic nonverbal interactions in autism spectrum disorder.

Research studies to date have revealed conflicting results with respect to the processing of nonverbal cues from social interactions in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of two important factors for the perception of dyadic social interactions, namely (a) the movement contingency and (b) the spatial context. To this end, 26 ...

Treatment patterns in children with autism in the United States.

Children with autism receive different types of non-drug treatments. We aimed to describe caregiver-reported pattern of care and its variability by geography and healthcare coverage in a US-wide sample of children aged 3-17 years. We recruited caregivers from the Simons Foundation Powering Autism Research for Knowledge (SPARK) cohort. Two online questionnaires (non-drug treatment, Autism Impact Me...

SHANK1 polymorphisms and SNP-SNP interactions among SHANK family: A possible cue for recognition to autism spectrum disorder in infant age.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. ASD is diagnosed for children at the age of two. ASD diagnosis, as early as possible, lays the foundation for treatment and much better prognosis. Notably, gene-based test is an inherent method to recognize the potential infants with ASD before the age of two. To investigate whether SHANK family contributes to ASD pr...

Melanotan-II reverses autistic features in a maternal immune activation mouse model of autism.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interactions, difficulty with communication, and repetitive behavior patterns. In humans affected by ASD, there is a male pre-disposition towards the condition with a male to female ratio of 4:1. In part due to the complex etiology of ASD including genetic and environmental interplay, there are...

Impaired chromaffin cells excitability and exocytosis in autistic Timothy syndrome TS2-neo mouse rescued by L-type calcium channel blockers.

Tymothy syndrome (TS) is a multisystem disorder featuring cardiac arrhythmias, autism and adrenal gland dysfunction that originates from a de-novo point-mutation in the gene encoding Cav1.2 (CACNA1C) L-type channel. To study the role of Cav1.2 channel signals on autism, the autistic TS2-neo mouse has been generated bearing the G406R point-mutation associated with TS type-2. Using heterozygous TS2-...

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