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Autism Research

09:38 EST 21st November 2018 | BioPortfolio

Association of Prenatal Exposure to Air Pollution With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

The etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is poorly understood, but prior studies suggest associations with airborne pollutants.

Alterations in white matter microstructure and regional volume are related to motor functions in boys with autism spectrum disorder.

Altered inter-regional structural connectivity related to higher cognitive functions has been commonly reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, whether these alterations similarly involve cortico-cerebellar motor circuitries remains largely elusive.

Psychiatric disorders and autism in young children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome compared to children with idiopathic autism.

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic condition characterized by high rates of psychiatric disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess psychiatric disorders in young children with 22q11DS using a structured psychiatric diagnostic interview, and one of few studies to use the complete gold standard diagnostic evaluation to examine the prevalence of autism spect...

Autism Spectrum Disorder Severity, Developmental Delays, and Overweight/Obese Weight Status.

Abnormal cortical activation during silent reading in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder characterized by communication deficits and social difficulties, and individuals with ASD frequently exhibit varied levels of language abilities. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying their language deficits remain unclear. To gain insight into the neurophysiological mechanisms of receptive language deficits, we assessed co...

Preference for speech in infancy differentially predicts language skills and autism-like behaviors.

Early emerging biases for conspecific vocalizations are a hallmark of early development. Typically developing neonates listen to speech more than many other sounds, including non-biological non-speech sounds, but listen equally to speech and monkey calls. By 3 months of age, however, infants prefer speech over both non-biological non-speech sounds and monkey calls. We examined whether different ...

Neuroinflammation in preterm babies and autism spectrum disorders.

Genetic anomalies have a role in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Each genetic factor is responsible for a small fraction of cases. Environment factors, like preterm delivery, have an important role in ASD. Preterm infants have a 10-fold higher risk of developing ASD. Preterm birth is often associated with maternal/fetal inflammation, leading to a fetal/neonatal inflammatory syndrome. There are de...

Environmental Factors Associated with Physical Activity and Screen Time Among Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder.

This study aimed to examine how environmental factors are associated with physical activity (PA) and screen-time (ST) among children with and without ASD (n = 1380 and 1411, respectively). For TD children, the absence of a bedroom television and neighborhood support were associated with PA. For children with ASD, no environmental factors were associated with PA. Regarding ST, the presence of a...

Reliability and validity of the translated Chinese version of Autism Spectrum Rating Scale (2-5 years).

Early autism screening is of great value, but there is lack of a screening tool of early age (2-5 years) in China. The Autism Spectrum Rating Scale (ASRS, 2-5 years) is a newly developed autism screening tool in the USA. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the translated Chinese version of ASRS (C_ASRS) in Chinese children population before its application in China for e...

Prevalence and Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years - Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2012.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Correction and Republication: Prevalence and Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years - Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2012.

On April 1, 2016, MMWR Surveillance Summaries published "Prevalence and Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years-Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2012" (1). On June 5, 2018, the authors informed MMWR about a number of inadvertent errors throughout the report that resulted from reporting of autism spectrum disorder cas...

Autism Spectrum Disorders: Potential Neuro-Psychopharmacotherapeutic Plant-Based Drugs.

Over the years, scientific researches have validated the healing benefits of many psychopharmacotherapeutic plant-based drugs to ameliorate psychiatric disorders. In contrast, the use of chemical procedures to isolate and purify specific compounds from plants that have been used to treat autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and its clinical features may contribute to improve the quality of life of man...

Local structural connectivity is associated with social cognition in autism spectrum disorder.

The current theory implying local, short-range overconnectivity in autism spectrum disorder, contrasting with long-range underconnectivity, is based on heterogeneous results, on limited data involving functional connectivity studies, on heterogeneous paediatric populations and non-specific methodologies. In this work, we studied short-distance structural connectivity in a homogeneous population of...

The association between NCAM1 levels and behavioral phenotypes in children with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neuropsychiatric disorders associated with synaptic function and plasticity. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM1) dysfunction impairs synapse formation, synaptic activity and plasticity. To explore the relationship between NCAM1 and ASD, a case-control study was conducted. This research included 40 ASD children and 39 healthy children aged 2-6 years old. We me...

mS-11, a mimetic of the mSin3-binding helix in NRSF, ameliorates social interaction deficits in a prenatal valproic acid-induced autism mouse model.

Growing evidence suggests pivotal roles for epigenetic mechanisms in both animal models of and individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) binds to neuron-restrictive silencing elements in neuronal genes and recruits co-repressors, such as mSin3, to epigenetically inhibit neuronal gene expression. Because dysregulation of NRSF is related to ASD, here...

Fisher discriminant analysis for classification of autism spectrum disorders based on folate-related metabolism markers.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders with an increasing prevalence but lack reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis. The present study investigated 13 serological metabolites and 2 genetic variants related to folate metabolism in a total of 89 ASD cases and 89 matched controls. Fisher discriminant analysis was used to establish the classification model to recognize ASD...

Identification of a rare homozygous c.790C>T variation in the TFB2M gene in Korean patients with autism spectrum disorder.

Mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent enhanced oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mitochondrial transcription factor B2 (TFB2M) is an essential protein in mitochondrial gene expression. No reports have described TFB2M mutations and variations involved in any human diseases. We identified a rare homozygous c.790C>T (His264Tyr) variation in TFB2M...

Do you know what I'm thinking? Temporal and spatial brain activity during a theory-of-mind task in children with autism.

The social impairments observed in children with autism spectrum disorder are thought to arise in part from deficits in theory of mind, the ability to understand other people's thoughts and feelings. To determine the temporal-spatial dynamics of brain activity underlying these atypical theory-of-mind processes, we used magnetoencephalography to characterize the sequence of functional brain pattern...

Outpatient Psychotherapy for Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Condition: Utilization, Treatment Satisfaction, and Preferred Modifications.

Many adults with autism spectrum condition (ASC) desire outpatient psychotherapy (PT). This study compared reasons for seeking PT, experiences with PT, and modifications preferred with respect to PT of individuals with ASC to non-autistic individuals with depression (MDD). Furthermore, factors predictive for treatment satisfaction were identified in individuals with ASC. A total of 262 adults with...

Supporting Parents of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The French Awakening.

After being wrongfully blamed for their child's disturbances, French parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are now perceived as essential partners of care professionals. This shift in perspective has encouraged the development of parent training programs in the field of autism. In this paper, we present three programs currently implemented in France for parents of a child with ASD...

Altered resting-state dynamics in autism spectrum disorder: Causal to the social impairment?

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by profound impairments in social abilities and by restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Much work in the past decade has been dedicated to understanding the brain-bases of ASD, and in the context of resting-state functional connectivity fMRI in high-functioning adolescents and adults, the field has established a set of reliable findings: de...

Somatosensory regions show limited functional connectivity differences in youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

An estimated 70-90% of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have sensory symptoms, which may present as hyper- or hypo-responsivity in one or more sensory modalities. These sensitivities correlate with social symptoms, activity and social interaction levels. Interestingly, sensory symptoms appear to be most prevalent in late childhood, suggesting a developmental component. While the neural...

Sex differences in social attention in autism spectrum disorder.

Although reduced social attention and increased nonsocial attention have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the studies have relied on predominantly male samples and have been underpowered to examine sex differences. These processes may differ for females with ASD, who have been shown to be dissimilar to males in social motivation and nonsocial features, including ci...

Reduced distractor interference in neurotypical adults with high expression of autistic traits irrespective of stimulus type.

Attention atypicality is evident in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and its broader phenotype with previous studies suggesting that in some cases participants can be more efficient at ignoring distracting irrelevant information. However, it is not clear to what extent this improved filtering capacity is driven by perceptual atypicality, such as local bias or atypical face processing, which is also ...

Traumatic Brain Injury in Early Childhood and Risk of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study.

Early childhood (< 3 years of age) is a critical period for neurodevelopment. This study investigated the correlation between early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subsequent risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and developmental delay (DD) by analyzing a national-scale cohort.

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