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Autoimmune Disorders Research

09:35 EST 18th February 2019 | BioPortfolio

How to treat Sjögren's syndrome.

SS is a chronic, autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology for which there is no known curative treatment. Although dryness of the eyes and mouth are the classically described features, patients often experience drying of other mucosal surfaces and systemic manifestations, including fatigue and arthralgia. There is an association with other autoimmune diseases, especially thyroid disease, coeliac di...

Association and gene-gene interaction analyses for polymorphic variants in CTLA-4 and FOXP3 genes: role in susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid disease.

Polymorphic variants of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) genes are implicated in dysregulated immune homeostasis and autoimmune disorders. We analyzed the association between CTLA-4 rs231775 and FOXP3 rs3761548, rs3761549 polymorphisms and predisposition to autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), inclusive of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' disease ...

Foxp3+ regulatory T cells expression in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

Alterations in the frequency or function of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which play a critical role in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance, are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are autoimmune inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), of which the etiology and mechanisms underlying its...

Localization of near-infrared labeled antibodies to the central nervous system in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Antibodies, including antibodies to the RNA binding protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, thus it is important to assess their biological activity using animal models of disease. Near-infrared optical imaging of fluorescently labeled antibodies and matrix metalloproteinase activity were measured and quantified i...

A Nondilated Main Pancreatic Duct Predicts Type 2 Autoimmune Pancreatitis: Comparative Study of Resected Pancreatic Head Masses.

Chronic pancreatitis (CP), pancreatic cancer (PCa), and autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) often present as a pancreatic mass. Accurate diagnosis is not always possible; up to 8% of surgical procedures are performed in benign pancreatic masses presumed to be malignant.

Principal Controversies in Vaccine Safety in the United States.

Concerns about vaccine safety can lead to decreased acceptance of vaccines and resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases. We summarize the key evidence on some of the main current vaccine safety controversies in the United States, including: 1) MMR vaccine and autism; 2) thimerosal, a mercury-based vaccine preservative, and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders; 3) vaccine-induced Guillain-Bar...

Mercury-induced inflammation and autoimmunity.

Human exposure to mercury leads to a variety of pathologies involving numerous organ systems including the immune system. A paucity of epidemiological studies and suitable diagnostic criteria, however, has hampered collection of sufficient data to support a causative role for mercury in autoimmune diseases. Nevertheless, there is evidence that mercury exposure in humans is linked to markers of inf...

Commensal microflora in human conjunctiva; characteristics of microflora in the patients with chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease.

To investigate the transformation in the composition of ocular surface microflora. Evidence shows that microbial diversity correlates with autoimmune disorders. Chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the lethal complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) which influences patients' quality of life. It has a similar pathophysiology to autoimmune disorders but the re...

Microvascular heart involvement in systemic autoimmune diseases: The purinergic pathway and therapeutic insights from the biology of the diseases.

Clinical, neuroimaging and therapeutic response in AQP4-positive NMO patients from India.

Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) is an autoimmune astrocytopathic disorder due to AQP4 antibodies.

Autoimmune Encephalitis Secondary to Melanoma.

IMMUNOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LATENT AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES IN THE ELDERLY.

LADA is determined by both a noninsulin-dependent clinical presentation and an autoimmune pathogenic process. GADA constitutes the most important marker, although IA-2A and ZnT8A also define LADA presentation. T2DM is the most prevalent type particularly over 65 years old. Studies about autoimmunity in this age group are scarce.

Correlation of IgG Subclass with Blood Cell Parameters in Patients with Autoimmune Hemolytic anemia.

To investigate the correlation of IgG subclasses with blood cell parameters in the patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).

Adjuvant and antigenic properties of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease in ruminants, has been linked as a possible risk factor for human multiple sclerosis. In the current study we investigated the adjuvant effect of MAP on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Groups of C57BL/6 mice were actively immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide emuls...

Immune checkpoints and the regulation of tolerogenicity in dendritic cells: Implications for autoimmunity and immunotherapy.

The immune system is responsible for defending the host from a large variety of potential pathogens, while simultaneously avoiding immune reactivity towards self-components. Self-tolerance has to be tightly maintained throughout several central and peripheral processes; immune checkpoints are imperative for regulating the immunity/tolerance balance. Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized cells that...

Epigenetic modulation of β-cells by interferon-α via PNPT1-miR26a-TET2 triggers autoimmune diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. Mounting evidence supports a central role for β-cell alterations in triggering the activation of self-reactive T-cells in T1D. However, the early deleterious events that occur in β cells, underpinning islet autoimmunity are not known. We hypothesized that epigenetic modifications induced in β cells by inflammatory...

Adiponectin deficiency has no effect in murine autoimmune myocarditis.

Adiponectin is a hormone that together with its receptors modulates a number of metabolic processes including gluconeogenesis and lipid catabolism. It belongs to the C1QTNF (complement C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein) family, which has a variety of members with high amino acid sequence homology and overlapping functions. Concentration of adiponectin in blood is inversely correlated with ...

Immunological aspects of autoimmune thyroid disease - Complex interplay between cells and cytokines.

Autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) is a chronic autoimmune thyroiditis with a complex pathogenesis including environmental factors, genetic background and immune system actions. Despite the large-scale research and discovery of new subpopulations of lymphocytes, cytokines, chemokines and their functions in the human body, the ethiology of ATD in many aspects remains a mystery. This article tries to ...

Autoimmune Disease-Associated Hypertension.

To highlight important new findings on the topic of autoimmune disease-associated hypertension.

Nanostructured lipid carriers engineered for intranasal delivery of teriflunomide in multiple sclerosis: Optimization and in vivo studies.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most severe autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (CNS).

Adequacy of scoring systems in diagnosing paediatric autoimmune hepatitis: retrospective study using a control group children with Hepatitis B infection.

To evaluate how correct is made the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in children, comparing the adults scoring systems - the 1999 revised scoring system by International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group and the 2007 Simplified Scoring System. The inaccuracies in diagnosis have been analysed.

MicroRNA-653 Inhibits Thymocyte Proliferation and Induces Thymocyte Apoptosis in Mice with Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis by Downregulating TRIM9.

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an organ-specific autoimmune neuromuscular disorder that occurs as a result of the impairment in neuromuscular junction and autoantibody attack on the postsynaptic receptors. Increasing evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRs) might be involved in the development of MG. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the regulatory function of miR-653 on MG and its relat...

Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the IL-27 gene with autoimmune thyroid diseases.

Accumulating data have shown that Interleukin-27 (IL-27) polymorphisms are linked to the susceptibility of some autoimmune diseases. We assessed whether there was an association between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-27 gene and autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs).

Assessing the anterior visual pathway in optic neuritis: recent experimental and clinical aspects.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) and related autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are characterized by chronic disability resulting from autoimmune neuroinflammation, with demyelination, astrocyte damage, impaired axonal transmission and neuroaxonal loss. Novel therapeutics stopping or reversing the progression of disability are still ur...

Nonparaneoplastic autoimmune cerebellar ataxias.

The current review develops the clinical presentations of nonparaneoplastic autoimmune cerebellar ataxia (ACA) and analyzes the association with autoantibodies.

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